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How to live with the enemy: understanding tolerance to parasites.

Råberg, Lars LU (2014) In PLoS Biology 12(11).
Abstract
How do we defend ourselves against pathogenic microbes and other parasites infecting us? Research on defence against parasites has traditionally focused on resistance-the ability to prevent infection or limit parasite replication. The genetics, physiology, and evolutionary ecology of such traits are now relatively well understood. During the last few years it has been realized that another, conceptually different type of defence also plays an important role in animal host-parasite interactions. This type of defence is called tolerance, and can be defined as the ability to limit the health effects of parasites without preventing infection or controlling parasite replication. Our understanding of the causes and consequences of variation in... (More)
How do we defend ourselves against pathogenic microbes and other parasites infecting us? Research on defence against parasites has traditionally focused on resistance-the ability to prevent infection or limit parasite replication. The genetics, physiology, and evolutionary ecology of such traits are now relatively well understood. During the last few years it has been realized that another, conceptually different type of defence also plays an important role in animal host-parasite interactions. This type of defence is called tolerance, and can be defined as the ability to limit the health effects of parasites without preventing infection or controlling parasite replication. Our understanding of the causes and consequences of variation in tolerance is, however, still rudimentary. Three recent studies shed light on these questions. In a study of HIV in humans, Regoes et al. show that an MHC class I gene affects not only resistance (as previously known) but also tolerance. In a study of voles, Jackson et al. identify a transcription factor mediating age differences in tolerance to macroparasites. Finally, Hayward et al. demonstrate that tolerance to intestinal parasites in sheep is under positive directional selection, but that most of the variation is environmentally induced rather than heritable. These studies increase our knowledge of the genetic and physiological sources of variation in tolerance, and how this variation affects Darwinian fitness. In addition, they illustrate different approaches to untangle tolerance from other factors determining the health effects of infectious disease. (Less)
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author
organization
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Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
PLoS Biology
volume
12
issue
11
publisher
Public Library of Science
external identifiers
  • pmid:25369060
  • wos:000345627300005
  • scopus:84912553158
ISSN
1544-9173
DOI
10.1371/journal.pbio.1001989
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
0b99e664-40a5-4ac6-ae81-b10effd66bca (old id 4820268)
date added to LUP
2014-12-10 15:05:43
date last changed
2017-09-10 03:58:10
@article{0b99e664-40a5-4ac6-ae81-b10effd66bca,
  abstract     = {How do we defend ourselves against pathogenic microbes and other parasites infecting us? Research on defence against parasites has traditionally focused on resistance-the ability to prevent infection or limit parasite replication. The genetics, physiology, and evolutionary ecology of such traits are now relatively well understood. During the last few years it has been realized that another, conceptually different type of defence also plays an important role in animal host-parasite interactions. This type of defence is called tolerance, and can be defined as the ability to limit the health effects of parasites without preventing infection or controlling parasite replication. Our understanding of the causes and consequences of variation in tolerance is, however, still rudimentary. Three recent studies shed light on these questions. In a study of HIV in humans, Regoes et al. show that an MHC class I gene affects not only resistance (as previously known) but also tolerance. In a study of voles, Jackson et al. identify a transcription factor mediating age differences in tolerance to macroparasites. Finally, Hayward et al. demonstrate that tolerance to intestinal parasites in sheep is under positive directional selection, but that most of the variation is environmentally induced rather than heritable. These studies increase our knowledge of the genetic and physiological sources of variation in tolerance, and how this variation affects Darwinian fitness. In addition, they illustrate different approaches to untangle tolerance from other factors determining the health effects of infectious disease.},
  articleno    = {e1001989},
  author       = {Råberg, Lars},
  issn         = {1544-9173},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  publisher    = {Public Library of Science},
  series       = {PLoS Biology},
  title        = {How to live with the enemy: understanding tolerance to parasites.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001989},
  volume       = {12},
  year         = {2014},
}