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Benefits of protected areas for nonbreeding waterbirds adjusting their distributions under climate warming

Gaget, Elie ; Pavón-Jordán, Diego ; Johnston, Alison ; Lehikoinen, Aleksi LU ; Hochachka, Wesley M. ; Sandercock, Brett K. ; Soultan, Alaaeldin ; Azafzaf, Hichem ; Bendjedda, Nadjiba and Bino, Taulant , et al. (2020) In Conservation Biology
Abstract

Climate warming is driving changes in species distributions and community composition. Many species have a so-called climatic debt, that is, shifts in range lag behind shifts in temperature isoclines. Inside protected areas (PAs), community changes in response to climate warming can be facilitated by greater colonization rates by warm-dwelling species, but also mitigated by lowering extirpation rates of cold-dwelling species. An evaluation of the relative importance of colonization-extirpation processes is important to inform conservation strategies that aim for both climate debt reduction and species conservation. We assessed the colonization-extirpation dynamics involved in community changes in response to climate inside and outside... (More)

Climate warming is driving changes in species distributions and community composition. Many species have a so-called climatic debt, that is, shifts in range lag behind shifts in temperature isoclines. Inside protected areas (PAs), community changes in response to climate warming can be facilitated by greater colonization rates by warm-dwelling species, but also mitigated by lowering extirpation rates of cold-dwelling species. An evaluation of the relative importance of colonization-extirpation processes is important to inform conservation strategies that aim for both climate debt reduction and species conservation. We assessed the colonization-extirpation dynamics involved in community changes in response to climate inside and outside PAs. To do so, we used 25 years of occurrence data of nonbreeding waterbirds in the western Palearctic (97 species, 7071 sites, 39 countries, 1993–2017). We used a community temperature index (CTI) framework based on species thermal affinities to investigate species turnover induced by temperature increase. We determined whether thermal community adjustment was associated with colonization by warm-dwelling species or extirpation of cold-dwelling species by modeling change in standard deviation of the CTI (CTISD). Using linear mixed-effects models, we investigated whether communities in PAs had lower climatic debt and different patterns of community change than communities outside PAs. For CTI and CTISD combined, communities inside PAs had more species, higher colonization, lower extirpation, and lower climatic debt (16%) than communities outside PAs. Thus, our results suggest that PAs facilitate 2 independent processes that shape community dynamics and maintain biodiversity. The community adjustment was, however, not sufficiently fast to keep pace with the large temperature increases in the central and northeastern western Palearctic. Our results underline the potential of combining CTI and CTISD metrics to improve understanding of the colonization-extirpation patterns driven by climate warming.

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organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
epub
subject
keywords
ajuste comunitario, cambio de distribución, colonización, colonization, community adjustment, community temperature index, extinción, extinction, humedales, range shift, wetlands, índice de temperatura comunitaria
in
Conservation Biology
publisher
Wiley-Blackwell
external identifiers
  • pmid:33009673
  • scopus:85099659018
ISSN
0888-8892
DOI
10.1111/cobi.13648
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
49d97d4b-830f-4db2-8a6d-5134a8d522b8
date added to LUP
2021-02-05 10:36:24
date last changed
2021-04-13 05:11:59
@article{49d97d4b-830f-4db2-8a6d-5134a8d522b8,
  abstract     = {<p>Climate warming is driving changes in species distributions and community composition. Many species have a so-called climatic debt, that is, shifts in range lag behind shifts in temperature isoclines. Inside protected areas (PAs), community changes in response to climate warming can be facilitated by greater colonization rates by warm-dwelling species, but also mitigated by lowering extirpation rates of cold-dwelling species. An evaluation of the relative importance of colonization-extirpation processes is important to inform conservation strategies that aim for both climate debt reduction and species conservation. We assessed the colonization-extirpation dynamics involved in community changes in response to climate inside and outside PAs. To do so, we used 25 years of occurrence data of nonbreeding waterbirds in the western Palearctic (97 species, 7071 sites, 39 countries, 1993–2017). We used a community temperature index (CTI) framework based on species thermal affinities to investigate species turnover induced by temperature increase. We determined whether thermal community adjustment was associated with colonization by warm-dwelling species or extirpation of cold-dwelling species by modeling change in standard deviation of the CTI (CTI<sub>SD</sub>). Using linear mixed-effects models, we investigated whether communities in PAs had lower climatic debt and different patterns of community change than communities outside PAs. For CTI and CTI<sub>SD</sub> combined, communities inside PAs had more species, higher colonization, lower extirpation, and lower climatic debt (16%) than communities outside PAs. Thus, our results suggest that PAs facilitate 2 independent processes that shape community dynamics and maintain biodiversity. The community adjustment was, however, not sufficiently fast to keep pace with the large temperature increases in the central and northeastern western Palearctic. Our results underline the potential of combining CTI and CTI<sub>SD</sub> metrics to improve understanding of the colonization-extirpation patterns driven by climate warming.</p>},
  author       = {Gaget, Elie and Pavón-Jordán, Diego and Johnston, Alison and Lehikoinen, Aleksi and Hochachka, Wesley M. and Sandercock, Brett K. and Soultan, Alaaeldin and Azafzaf, Hichem and Bendjedda, Nadjiba and Bino, Taulant and Božič, Luka and Clausen, Preben and Dakki, Mohamed and Devos, Koen and Domsa, Cristi and Encarnação, Vitor and Erciyas-Yavuz, Kiraz and Faragó, Sándor and Frost, Teresa and Gaudard, Clemence and Gosztonyi, Lívia and Haas, Fredrik and Hornman, Menno and Langendoen, Tom and Ieronymidou, Christina and Kostyushin, Vasiliy A. and Lewis, Lesley J. and Lorentsen, Svein Håkon and Luigujõe, Leho and Meissner, Włodzimierz and Mikuska, Tibor and Molina, Blas and Musilová, Zuzana and Natykanets, Viktor and Paquet, Jean Yves and Petkov, Nicky and Portolou, Danae and Ridzoň, Jozef and Sayoud, Samir and Šćiban, Marko and Sniauksta, Laimonas and Stīpniece, Antra and Strebel, Nicolas and Teufelbauer, Norbert and Topić, Goran and Uzunova, Danka and Vizi, Andrej and Wahl, Johannes and Zenatello, Marco and Brommer, Jon E.},
  issn         = {0888-8892},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {10},
  publisher    = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  series       = {Conservation Biology},
  title        = {Benefits of protected areas for nonbreeding waterbirds adjusting their distributions under climate warming},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13648},
  doi          = {10.1111/cobi.13648},
  year         = {2020},
}