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Delade meningar : Retorisk flertydighet och den pluralistiska publiken i politiska förnyelseprocesser.

Bruhn, Tommy LU (2018)
Abstract (Swedish)
Denna avhandling undersöker retorisk flertydighet som en egenskap hos uttryck som adresserar sammansatta, heterogena publiker. Avhandlingens syfte är att utveckla konceptuella verktyg för analysen av flertydiga kommunikativa handlingar, för att undersöka vilka utfall de kan möjliggöra. Avhandlingens utgångspunkt är att uttryck är meningsfulla och fundamentalt sociala handlingar, som alltid är en del av en pågående social dialog. Som sådana, kan ett uttryck förstås som retoriskt flertydigt om det kan betyda olika saker för olika publiker i sin yttringskontext.
Den första av avhandlingens två analyser undersöker Lars Werners inledningsanförande vid Vänsterpartiet kommunisternas 29:e kongress våren 1990. Analysen visar att Werners tal... (More)
Denna avhandling undersöker retorisk flertydighet som en egenskap hos uttryck som adresserar sammansatta, heterogena publiker. Avhandlingens syfte är att utveckla konceptuella verktyg för analysen av flertydiga kommunikativa handlingar, för att undersöka vilka utfall de kan möjliggöra. Avhandlingens utgångspunkt är att uttryck är meningsfulla och fundamentalt sociala handlingar, som alltid är en del av en pågående social dialog. Som sådana, kan ett uttryck förstås som retoriskt flertydigt om det kan betyda olika saker för olika publiker i sin yttringskontext.
Den första av avhandlingens två analyser undersöker Lars Werners inledningsanförande vid Vänsterpartiet kommunisternas 29:e kongress våren 1990. Analysen visar att Werners tal hade funktionen att utöva en subtil diplomati i den djupa ideologiska konflikt som då rådde inom partiet, genom att talets uttryck var pragmatiskt flertydiga i relation till de olika ideologiska positioner som kommit till uttryck i partiets förnyelsedebatt. Den andra analysen visar att Fredrik Reinfeldt vid Moderaternas partistämma 2005 höll ett tal som var flertydigt ifråga om syftet med det förnyelseprogram han förespråkade. Genom talets polysema ordval och syntaktiskt och pragmatiskt flertydiga konstruktioner kunde partiförnyelsen, såsom den implicit framställdes i talet, förstås som antingen en genuin reform av partiets identitet och målsättningar, eller som en strategiskt reformistisk position med syftet att uppnå antingen partiets traditionella konservativa mål eller visionära liberala mål. Analyser av receptionen av de två talen bekräftar några av fynden från de primära retorikanalyserna av talen.
Analyserna visar att flertydiga uttryck kan ha den retoriska funktionen att orkestrera olika publiksegment i gemensamma ageranden som ligger bortom deras direkta, publikspecifika responser. Jag argumenterar att det flertydiga uttrycket kan förstås som en medlingshandling mellan olika uppfattningar om ett gemensamt problem, och att detta kan blottlägga vilka utvecklingar av en kontrovers som en sådan handling kan möjliggöra retoriskt. Specifikt så visar jag hur Werners tal var formulerat på sätt som kunde övertyga hans sammansatta publik att anta en gemensam pluralistisk reformistisk radikal identitet, vilket bland annat innebar att ta bort kommunistetiketten ur partinamnet. Jag visar också hur Reinfeldts tal kunde övertyga de olika delarna i hans sammansatta publik att hans förespråkade förnyelseprogram var direkt i linje med deras skiftande politiska målsättningar, vilket kunde tillåta publiken som helhet att gemensamt försöka genomföra förnyelseprogrammets sakpolitiska förslag. Undersökningens fynd har implikationer för teorin om den sammansatta publiken. Jag argumenterar för att behandla den sammansatta publiken som ett dualistiskt fenomen: Både som en adresserad samling av olika konstituerande delpubliker, sammansatta i egenskap av det samtidiga tilltalet, och därför som en artikulerad enhet. Detta perspektiv kan vara till hjälp för att upptäcka de roller, relationer och den ordning som impliceras av ett uttryck, och som uttrycket har den retoriska potentialen att möjliggöra i den tilltalade gemenskapens framtida utveckling (Less)
Abstract
This thesis is an inquiry into rhetorical ambiguity as a property of utterances addressing composite, heterogeneous audiences. The purpose is to develop conceptual tools to analyse ambiguous communicative acts for the outcomes they make possible. The thesis proceeds from the assumption that utterances are purposeful and fundamentally social acts, always part of an ongoing social dialogue. As such, an utterance can be understood as rhetorically ambiguous when it can mean different things to different audiences, in its context of enunciation.
The first of the two analyses performed concern Lars Werners speech at the 1990 congress of the left wing, then communist party Vänsterpartiet kommunisterna. It shows that Werner’s speech performed... (More)
This thesis is an inquiry into rhetorical ambiguity as a property of utterances addressing composite, heterogeneous audiences. The purpose is to develop conceptual tools to analyse ambiguous communicative acts for the outcomes they make possible. The thesis proceeds from the assumption that utterances are purposeful and fundamentally social acts, always part of an ongoing social dialogue. As such, an utterance can be understood as rhetorically ambiguous when it can mean different things to different audiences, in its context of enunciation.
The first of the two analyses performed concern Lars Werners speech at the 1990 congress of the left wing, then communist party Vänsterpartiet kommunisterna. It shows that Werner’s speech performed a subtle diplomacy in the deep ideological conflict within the party at the time, by verbalisations that were pragmatically ambiguous in regards to the different ideological positions espoused by participants in the renewal debate. The second analysis shows that Fredrik Reinfeldt, at the 2005 right-wing Moderaterna party convention, gave a speech that was ambiguous on the purpose of the party reform platform that he advocated. By his arguing in ambiguous words and grammar, the nature of the party reform, as it was implied in the speech, could be taken as a genuine reform of party identity and goals, or as a strategic reformist position aiming either toward the partys’ traditional conservative ends or toward visionary liberal ends. Complementary analyses of audience reception of both speeches corroborates some of the findings of the primary speech analyses.
The analyses show that ambiguous utterances can have the function of rhetorically orchestrating divergent audience segments toward collective actions beyond their direct, local responses. I argue that conceptualising the ambiguous utterance as an act of mediation between different positions on a common problem, can unveil what developments of the controversy the act can enable rhetorically. Specifically, I show how Werner’s speech could persuade his composite audience to adopt a common pluralistic radical reformist identity, and accept dropping the communist label from the party name. I also show how Reinfeldt’s speech could persuade the constituent parts of his composite audience that his renewal platform was directly aligned with their divergent personal political goals, allowing them to commonly try to implement its policies. The findings of this thesis has implications for the theory of the composite audience. I argue for treating the composite audience as a dualistic phenomenon: Both as an addressed aggregation of different constituent parts, composed by virtue of being simultaneously addressed, and consequently as an articulated community. I argue that this perspective can be useful to uncover the roles, relationships and order that an utterance implies, and has the rhetorical potential to bring about in the future development of the addressed community. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • professor Fischer, Otto, Uppsala universitet
organization
alternative title
Shared meanings : Rhetorical Ambiguity and the Pluralistic Audience in Political Party Reform Processes
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Retorik, dialogik, flertydighet, ambiguitet, sammansatt publik, pluralism, dissensus, amfiboli, offentlighet, epideiktisk retorik, partiförnyelse, demokratiskt ledarskap, vänsterpartiet, Lars Werner, moderaterna, Fredrik Reinfeldt, rhetoric, dialogical, ambiguity, composite audience, pluralism, dissensus, stylistics, amphiboly, public rhetoric, epideictic rhetoric, party reform, democratic leadership, Vänsterpartiet, Lars Werner, moderaterna, Fredrik Reinfeldt
pages
320 pages
publisher
Retorikförlaget
defense location
Hörsalen, Språk- och litteraturcentrum, Helgonabacken 12, Lund
defense date
2018-09-28 13:15
ISBN
978-91-86093-31-0
978-91-86093-32-7
language
Swedish
LU publication?
yes
id
4a0d08da-0d13-4861-a88a-337b6366ecbc
date added to LUP
2018-08-30 18:21:15
date last changed
2018-11-21 21:41:19
@phdthesis{4a0d08da-0d13-4861-a88a-337b6366ecbc,
  abstract     = {This thesis is an inquiry into rhetorical ambiguity as a property of utterances addressing composite, heterogeneous audiences. The purpose is to develop conceptual tools to analyse ambiguous communicative acts for the outcomes they make possible. The thesis proceeds from the assumption that utterances are purposeful and fundamentally social acts, always part of an ongoing social dialogue. As such, an utterance can be understood as rhetorically ambiguous when it can mean different things to different audiences, in its context of enunciation.<br/>The first of the two analyses performed concern Lars Werners speech at the 1990 congress of the left wing, then communist party Vänsterpartiet kommunisterna. It shows that Werner’s speech performed a subtle diplomacy in the deep ideological conflict within the party at the time, by verbalisations that were pragmatically ambiguous in regards to the different ideological positions espoused by participants in the renewal debate. The second analysis shows that Fredrik Reinfeldt, at the 2005 right-wing Moderaterna party convention, gave a speech that was ambiguous on the purpose of the party reform platform that he advocated. By his arguing in ambiguous words and grammar, the nature of the party reform, as it was implied in the speech, could be taken as a genuine reform of party identity and goals, or as a strategic reformist position aiming either toward the partys’ traditional conservative ends or toward visionary liberal ends. Complementary analyses of audience reception of both speeches corroborates some of the findings of the primary speech analyses.<br/>The analyses show that ambiguous utterances can have the function of rhetorically orchestrating divergent audience segments toward collective actions beyond their direct, local responses. I argue that conceptualising the ambiguous utterance as an act of mediation between different positions on a common problem, can unveil what developments of the controversy the act can enable rhetorically. Specifically, I show how Werner’s speech could persuade his composite audience to adopt a common pluralistic radical reformist identity, and accept dropping the communist label from the party name. I also show how Reinfeldt’s speech could persuade the constituent parts of his composite audience that his renewal platform was directly aligned with their divergent personal political goals, allowing them to commonly try to implement its policies. The findings of this thesis has implications for the theory of the composite audience. I argue for treating the composite audience as a dualistic phenomenon: Both as an addressed aggregation of different constituent parts, composed by virtue of being simultaneously addressed, and consequently as an articulated community. I argue that this perspective can be useful to uncover the roles, relationships and order that an utterance implies, and has the rhetorical potential to bring about in the future development of the addressed community.},
  author       = {Bruhn, Tommy},
  isbn         = {978-91-86093-31-0},
  keyword      = {Retorik,dialogik,flertydighet,ambiguitet,sammansatt publik,pluralism,dissensus,amfiboli,offentlighet,epideiktisk retorik,partiförnyelse,demokratiskt ledarskap,vänsterpartiet,Lars Werner,moderaterna,Fredrik Reinfeldt,rhetoric,dialogical,ambiguity,composite audience,pluralism,dissensus,stylistics,amphiboly,public rhetoric,epideictic rhetoric,party reform,democratic leadership,Vänsterpartiet,Lars Werner,moderaterna,Fredrik Reinfeldt},
  language     = {swe},
  pages        = {320},
  publisher    = {Retorikförlaget},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {Delade meningar : Retorisk flertydighet och den pluralistiska publiken i politiska förnyelseprocesser.},
  year         = {2018},
}