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Literature Review on Dual-Fuel Combustion Modelling

Merts, Menno LU and Verhelst, Sebastian LU (2019) SAE 14th International Conference on Engines and Vehicles, ICE 2019 In SAE Technical Papers
Abstract

In the search for low greenhouse gas propulsion, the dual fuel engine provides a solution to use low carbon fuel at diesel-like high efficiency. Also a lower emission of NOx and particles can be achieved by replacing a substantial part of the diesel fuel by for example natural gas. Limitations can be found in excessively high heat release rate (combustion-knock), and high methane emissions. These limitations are strongly influenced by operating parameters and properties of the used (bio)-gas. To find the dominant relations between fuel properties, operating parameters and the heat release rate and methane emissions, a combustion model is beneficial. Such a model can be used for optimizing the process, or can even be used in real time... (More)

In the search for low greenhouse gas propulsion, the dual fuel engine provides a solution to use low carbon fuel at diesel-like high efficiency. Also a lower emission of NOx and particles can be achieved by replacing a substantial part of the diesel fuel by for example natural gas. Limitations can be found in excessively high heat release rate (combustion-knock), and high methane emissions. These limitations are strongly influenced by operating parameters and properties of the used (bio)-gas. To find the dominant relations between fuel properties, operating parameters and the heat release rate and methane emissions, a combustion model is beneficial. Such a model can be used for optimizing the process, or can even be used in real time control. As precursor for such a model, the current state of art of dual fuel combustion modelling is investigated in this work. The focus is on high speed dual fuel engines for heavy duty and marine applications, with a varying gas/diesel ratio. Modelling is limited to the closed part of the 4-stroke engine cycle. A methodology part is included, describing the origin of the treated work. Modelling of the dual fuel process can be done in various ways. In this Literature Review Paper a structured overview is given of the various modelling approaches used nowadays, to simulate the dual fuel combustion. The covered models include 0D, multi-zone and 3D CFD approaches. All intermediate steps for each approach are explained, and their strong and weak points are mentioned. The modelling techniques are rated on their precision and predictive capabilities in relation to their computational cost. The majority of the models was able to give a good description of the heat release rate, although not always predictive. A good match with experimental results is seen by Wiebe and double-Wiebe functions, but prediction is limited. By including a detailed description of the combustion process, a better predictive heat release rate can be created. Also combinations of a Wiebe model and detailed combustion models are seen. A good prediction of NOx emissions is achieved by models that include the oxidation reactions of nitrogen in their reaction scheme, or make use of the Zeldovich mechanism. A good description of local temperature is needed. This is achieved by 3D CFD models, but also multi-zone models have shown reasonable results here. Although often mentioned as a significant source for CH4 emissions in a dual fuel engine, crevices were hardly included in the simulation work. The 3D models that did include the volume above the piston rings, confirmed the large amount of methane emission originating from this source. When prediction of uncombusted methane is a goal of simulation, it seems this aspect is not to be neglected. The precise spatial description and detailed reaction schemes produce useful results, but come at the cost of high computational effort. Simplified models can be fast, but lack the output of detailed predictive information. This creates an interesting outlook for further development of an intermediate class of models, with enough precision at a calculation effort feasible for control purposes.

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Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding
publication status
published
subject
host publication
14th International Conference on Engines & Vehicles: Technical paper
series title
SAE Technical Papers
article number
2019-24-0120
publisher
Society of Automotive Engineers
conference name
SAE 14th International Conference on Engines and Vehicles, ICE 2019
conference location
Capri, Italy
conference dates
2019-09-15 - 2019-09-19
external identifiers
  • scopus:85074429022
ISSN
0148-7191
DOI
10.4271/2019-24-0120
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
4ecf815f-e44b-4bb5-ac1c-95c35ceb8657
date added to LUP
2019-11-21 10:07:37
date last changed
2020-01-13 02:32:04
@inproceedings{4ecf815f-e44b-4bb5-ac1c-95c35ceb8657,
  abstract     = {<p>In the search for low greenhouse gas propulsion, the dual fuel engine provides a solution to use low carbon fuel at diesel-like high efficiency. Also a lower emission of NOx and particles can be achieved by replacing a substantial part of the diesel fuel by for example natural gas. Limitations can be found in excessively high heat release rate (combustion-knock), and high methane emissions. These limitations are strongly influenced by operating parameters and properties of the used (bio)-gas. To find the dominant relations between fuel properties, operating parameters and the heat release rate and methane emissions, a combustion model is beneficial. Such a model can be used for optimizing the process, or can even be used in real time control. As precursor for such a model, the current state of art of dual fuel combustion modelling is investigated in this work. The focus is on high speed dual fuel engines for heavy duty and marine applications, with a varying gas/diesel ratio. Modelling is limited to the closed part of the 4-stroke engine cycle. A methodology part is included, describing the origin of the treated work. Modelling of the dual fuel process can be done in various ways. In this Literature Review Paper a structured overview is given of the various modelling approaches used nowadays, to simulate the dual fuel combustion. The covered models include 0D, multi-zone and 3D CFD approaches. All intermediate steps for each approach are explained, and their strong and weak points are mentioned. The modelling techniques are rated on their precision and predictive capabilities in relation to their computational cost. The majority of the models was able to give a good description of the heat release rate, although not always predictive. A good match with experimental results is seen by Wiebe and double-Wiebe functions, but prediction is limited. By including a detailed description of the combustion process, a better predictive heat release rate can be created. Also combinations of a Wiebe model and detailed combustion models are seen. A good prediction of NO<sub>x</sub> emissions is achieved by models that include the oxidation reactions of nitrogen in their reaction scheme, or make use of the Zeldovich mechanism. A good description of local temperature is needed. This is achieved by 3D CFD models, but also multi-zone models have shown reasonable results here. Although often mentioned as a significant source for CH<sub>4</sub> emissions in a dual fuel engine, crevices were hardly included in the simulation work. The 3D models that did include the volume above the piston rings, confirmed the large amount of methane emission originating from this source. When prediction of uncombusted methane is a goal of simulation, it seems this aspect is not to be neglected. The precise spatial description and detailed reaction schemes produce useful results, but come at the cost of high computational effort. Simplified models can be fast, but lack the output of detailed predictive information. This creates an interesting outlook for further development of an intermediate class of models, with enough precision at a calculation effort feasible for control purposes.</p>},
  author       = {Merts, Menno and Verhelst, Sebastian},
  booktitle    = { 14th International Conference on Engines & Vehicles: Technical paper},
  issn         = {0148-7191},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {09},
  publisher    = {Society of Automotive Engineers},
  series       = {SAE Technical Papers},
  title        = {Literature Review on Dual-Fuel Combustion Modelling},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4271/2019-24-0120},
  doi          = {10.4271/2019-24-0120},
  year         = {2019},
}