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Linear reaction norms of thermal limits in Drosophila : Predictable plasticity in cold but not in heat tolerance

Schou, Mads Fristrup LU ; Mouridsen, Marie Brandt; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov and Loeschcke, Volker (2016) In Functional Ecology 31(4). p.934-945
Abstract
* Thermal limits of ectotherms have been studied extensively and are believed to be evolutionarily constrained, leaving ectotherms at risk under future climate change. Phenotypic plasticity may extend the thermal limits, but we lack detailed characterizations of thermal limit reaction norms as well as an understanding of the interspecific variation in these reaction norms. * Here, we investigated the interspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity of thermal limits in 13 Drosophila species. We obtained high-resolution reaction norms for upper and lower thermal limits across the permissive developmental thermal range (12textperiodcentered5–30 °C). The estimated phenotypes were then associated (while accounting for phylogeny) with climatic... (More)
* Thermal limits of ectotherms have been studied extensively and are believed to be evolutionarily constrained, leaving ectotherms at risk under future climate change. Phenotypic plasticity may extend the thermal limits, but we lack detailed characterizations of thermal limit reaction norms as well as an understanding of the interspecific variation in these reaction norms. * Here, we investigated the interspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity of thermal limits in 13 Drosophila species. We obtained high-resolution reaction norms for upper and lower thermal limits across the permissive developmental thermal range (12textperiodcentered5–30 °C). The estimated phenotypes were then associated (while accounting for phylogeny) with climatic parameters from the species' distributional range. * All species showed linear reaction norms for cold tolerance (CTmin) and heat tolerance (CTmax) across developmental acclimation temperatures. We observed strong beneficial cold acclimation to lower temperatures in all species. Conversely, the heat acclimation response was non-existent in some species, and decreasing or increasing with increasing developmental acclimation temperatures in other species. The degree of phenotypic plasticity of CTmin and CTmax was related neither to the basal thermal limits (trade-off hypothesis) nor to climatic parameters connected to latitudinal distributions (latitudinal hypothesis). * A substantial and linear developmental plasticity of lower thermal limits is a general characteristic of Drosophila species, which allows for straightforward application in species distribution models. In general, upper thermal limits also show linear norms of reaction, but their adaptive significance is limited and highly variable among species, making general predictions across species rather impossible. * High-resolution estimates of norms of reaction of thermal limits can considerably increase our understanding of the capacity of ectotherms to acclimate to different thermal environments. However, our understanding of the environmental drivers of the evolution of phenotypic plasticity and thus of the interspecific differences remains ambiguous, potentially constrained by limited microclimate information. A lay summary is available for this article. (Less)
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author
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Beneficial acclimation, CT max, CT min, Climate change, developmental acclimation, Phenotypic plasticity, Species distribution models, Trade-offs
in
Functional Ecology
volume
31
issue
4
pages
934 - 945
publisher
Wiley-Blackwell
external identifiers
  • scopus:84999636317
ISSN
1365-2435
DOI
10.1111/1365-2435.12782
language
English
LU publication?
no
id
4f925070-7444-460c-b437-9edc858e48b3
date added to LUP
2017-12-18 09:45:11
date last changed
2019-05-21 03:55:59
@article{4f925070-7444-460c-b437-9edc858e48b3,
  abstract     = {* Thermal limits of ectotherms have been studied extensively and are believed to be evolutionarily constrained, leaving ectotherms at risk under future climate change. Phenotypic plasticity may extend the thermal limits, but we lack detailed characterizations of thermal limit reaction norms as well as an understanding of the interspecific variation in these reaction norms. * Here, we investigated the interspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity of thermal limits in 13 Drosophila species. We obtained high-resolution reaction norms for upper and lower thermal limits across the permissive developmental thermal range (12textperiodcentered5–30 °C). The estimated phenotypes were then associated (while accounting for phylogeny) with climatic parameters from the species' distributional range. * All species showed linear reaction norms for cold tolerance (CTmin) and heat tolerance (CTmax) across developmental acclimation temperatures. We observed strong beneficial cold acclimation to lower temperatures in all species. Conversely, the heat acclimation response was non-existent in some species, and decreasing or increasing with increasing developmental acclimation temperatures in other species. The degree of phenotypic plasticity of CTmin and CTmax was related neither to the basal thermal limits (trade-off hypothesis) nor to climatic parameters connected to latitudinal distributions (latitudinal hypothesis). * A substantial and linear developmental plasticity of lower thermal limits is a general characteristic of Drosophila species, which allows for straightforward application in species distribution models. In general, upper thermal limits also show linear norms of reaction, but their adaptive significance is limited and highly variable among species, making general predictions across species rather impossible. * High-resolution estimates of norms of reaction of thermal limits can considerably increase our understanding of the capacity of ectotherms to acclimate to different thermal environments. However, our understanding of the environmental drivers of the evolution of phenotypic plasticity and thus of the interspecific differences remains ambiguous, potentially constrained by limited microclimate information. A lay summary is available for this article.},
  author       = {Schou, Mads Fristrup and Mouridsen, Marie Brandt and Sørensen, Jesper Givskov and Loeschcke, Volker},
  issn         = {1365-2435},
  keyword      = {Beneficial acclimation,CT max,CT min,Climate change,developmental acclimation,Phenotypic plasticity,Species distribution models,Trade-offs},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {934--945},
  publisher    = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  series       = {Functional Ecology},
  title        = {Linear reaction norms of thermal limits in Drosophila : Predictable plasticity in cold but not in heat tolerance},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12782},
  volume       = {31},
  year         = {2016},
}