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An In-Cycle based NOx Reduction Strategy using Direct Injection of AdBlue

Muric, Kenan LU ; Stenlåås, Ola ; Tunestål, Per LU and Johansson, Bengt LU (2014) SAE 2014 International Powertrain, Fuels & Lubricants Meeting In SAE International Journal of Engines 7(4). p.1984-1996
Abstract
In the last couple of decades, countries have enacted new laws concerning environmental pollution caused by heavy-duty commercial and passenger vehicles. This is done mainly in an effort to reduce smog and health impacts caused by the different pollutions. One of the legislated pollutions, among a wide range of regulated pollutions, is nitrogen oxides (commonly abbreviated as NOx). The SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) was introduced in the automotive industry to reduce NOx emissions leaving the vehicle. The basic idea is to inject a urea solution (AdBlue™) in the exhaust gas before the gas enters the catalyst. The optimal working temperature for the catalyst is somewhere in the range of 300 to 400 °C. For the reactions to occur without... (More)
In the last couple of decades, countries have enacted new laws concerning environmental pollution caused by heavy-duty commercial and passenger vehicles. This is done mainly in an effort to reduce smog and health impacts caused by the different pollutions. One of the legislated pollutions, among a wide range of regulated pollutions, is nitrogen oxides (commonly abbreviated as NOx). The SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) was introduced in the automotive industry to reduce NOx emissions leaving the vehicle. The basic idea is to inject a urea solution (AdBlue™) in the exhaust gas before the gas enters the catalyst. The optimal working temperature for the catalyst is somewhere in the range of 300 to 400 °C. For the reactions to occur without a catalyst, the gas temperature has to be at least 800 °C. These temperatures only occur in the engine cylinder itself, during and after the combustion.

In this paper a study is presented where a second injector is installed in a Scania D13 cylinder head for urea injection purposes. Additionally, a crank angle resolved in-cycle NOx formation model is utilized to calculate the urea injection duration for each individual injection event. A gas temperature model based on the cylinder pressure is also used to decide the timing of the urea injection, although always occurring after the combustion and during the expansion stroke. A parameter sweep is conducted to evaluate the concept where also an SCR-catalyst has been introduced to the engine system. The parameter sweep done in the study contains sweeps of engine speed, rail pressure, engine load, EGR levels and timing of the urea injection (by changing the gas temperature limit at which the injection of urea is initiated). The engine tested is a modified single cylinder Scania D13 engine, rebuilt from a six-cylinder engine.

The results suggest that it is possible to reduce NOx in-cycle, up to 30% at 4.3 bar and 7.7 bar IMEPnet, and 50% at an IMEPnet load of 11.8 bar, with direct injection of commercial AdBlue. This relates well to the earlier numerical evaluation studies, in the field of direct injection of mixed urea and water solutions.
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Abstract (Swedish)
In the last couple of decades, countries have enacted new laws concerning environmental pollution caused by heavy-duty commercial and passenger vehicles. This is done mainly in an effort to reduce smog and health impacts caused by the different pollutions. One of the legislated pollutions, among a wide range of regulated pollutions, is nitrogen oxides (commonly abbreviated as NOx). The SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) was introduced in the automotive industry to reduce NOx emissions leaving the vehicle. The basic idea is to inject a urea solution (AdBlue™) in the exhaust gas before the gas enters the catalyst. The optimal working temperature for the catalyst is somewhere in the range of 300 to 400 °C. For the reactions to occur without... (More)
In the last couple of decades, countries have enacted new laws concerning environmental pollution caused by heavy-duty commercial and passenger vehicles. This is done mainly in an effort to reduce smog and health impacts caused by the different pollutions. One of the legislated pollutions, among a wide range of regulated pollutions, is nitrogen oxides (commonly abbreviated as NOx). The SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) was introduced in the automotive industry to reduce NOx emissions leaving the vehicle. The basic idea is to inject a urea solution (AdBlue™) in the exhaust gas before the gas enters the catalyst. The optimal working temperature for the catalyst is somewhere in the range of 300 to 400 °C. For the reactions to occur without a catalyst, the gas temperature has to be at least 800 °C. These temperatures only occur in the engine cylinder itself, during and after the combustion.

In this paper a study is presented where a second injector is installed in a Scania D13 cylinder head for urea injection purposes. Additionally, a crank angle resolved in-cycle NOx formation model is utilized to calculate the urea injection duration for each individual injection event. A gas temperature model based on the cylinder pressure is also used to decide the timing of the urea injection, although always occurring after the combustion and during the expansion stroke. A parameter sweep is conducted to evaluate the concept where also an SCR-catalyst has been introduced to the engine system. The parameter sweep done in the study contains sweeps of engine speed, rail pressure, engine load, EGR levels and timing of the urea injection (by changing the gas temperature limit at which the injection of urea is initiated). The engine tested is a modified single cylinder Scania D13 engine, rebuilt from a six-cylinder engine.

The results suggest that it is possible to reduce NOx in-cycle, up to 30% at 4.3 bar and 7.7 bar IMEPnet, and 50% at an IMEPnet load of 11.8 bar, with direct injection of commercial AdBlue. This relates well to the earlier numerical evaluation studies, in the field of direct injection of mixed urea and water solutions.
(Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
SAE International Journal of Engines
volume
7
issue
4
article number
2014-01-2817
pages
13 pages
publisher
SAE
conference name
SAE 2014 International Powertrain, Fuels & Lubricants Meeting
conference location
Birmingham, United Kingdom
conference dates
2014-10-20 - 2014-10-22
external identifiers
  • scopus:84953861168
ISSN
1946-3944
DOI
10.4271/2014-01-2817
project
Closed-Loop Diesel Control - Part 2
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
51458957-de0b-45c8-9f4a-e7e97139bc1c
date added to LUP
2017-12-12 16:13:06
date last changed
2020-01-13 00:18:32
@article{51458957-de0b-45c8-9f4a-e7e97139bc1c,
  abstract     = {In the last couple of decades, countries have enacted new laws concerning environmental pollution caused by heavy-duty commercial and passenger vehicles. This is done mainly in an effort to reduce smog and health impacts caused by the different pollutions. One of the legislated pollutions, among a wide range of regulated pollutions, is nitrogen oxides (commonly abbreviated as NOx). The SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) was introduced in the automotive industry to reduce NOx emissions leaving the vehicle. The basic idea is to inject a urea solution (AdBlue™) in the exhaust gas before the gas enters the catalyst. The optimal working temperature for the catalyst is somewhere in the range of 300 to 400 °C. For the reactions to occur without a catalyst, the gas temperature has to be at least 800 °C. These temperatures only occur in the engine cylinder itself, during and after the combustion.<br/><br/>In this paper a study is presented where a second injector is installed in a Scania D13 cylinder head for urea injection purposes. Additionally, a crank angle resolved in-cycle NOx formation model is utilized to calculate the urea injection duration for each individual injection event. A gas temperature model based on the cylinder pressure is also used to decide the timing of the urea injection, although always occurring after the combustion and during the expansion stroke. A parameter sweep is conducted to evaluate the concept where also an SCR-catalyst has been introduced to the engine system. The parameter sweep done in the study contains sweeps of engine speed, rail pressure, engine load, EGR levels and timing of the urea injection (by changing the gas temperature limit at which the injection of urea is initiated). The engine tested is a modified single cylinder Scania D13 engine, rebuilt from a six-cylinder engine.<br/><br/>The results suggest that it is possible to reduce NOx in-cycle, up to 30% at 4.3 bar and 7.7 bar IMEPnet, and 50% at an IMEPnet load of 11.8 bar, with direct injection of commercial AdBlue. This relates well to the earlier numerical evaluation studies, in the field of direct injection of mixed urea and water solutions.<br/>},
  author       = {Muric, Kenan and Stenlåås, Ola and Tunestål, Per and Johansson, Bengt},
  issn         = {1946-3944},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {10},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {1984--1996},
  publisher    = {SAE},
  series       = {SAE International Journal of Engines},
  title        = {An In-Cycle based NOx Reduction Strategy using Direct Injection of AdBlue},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4271/2014-01-2817},
  doi          = {10.4271/2014-01-2817},
  volume       = {7},
  year         = {2014},
}