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Coiled coil cytoskeleton in cell architecture and osmotic stress response in Streptomyces

Fuchino, Katsuya LU (2015)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in English

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek is known as the father of microbiology, because he made the first microscopic observation of bacteria in human history, published in 1683. For the naked human eyes, bacterial cells are too small to observe, and the development of microscopy techniques has since then been fundamental for examining bacterial cells. Recent advances in visualizing tools, including uses of fluorescent tags, super-resolution microscopy, and cryo-electron tomography, have even enabled us to scrutinize the inside of bacterial cells. Our understanding of bacterial cellular organization has remarkably progressed in the last 2 decades. It turned out that bacteria have a very elaborate cellular... (More)
Popular Abstract in English

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek is known as the father of microbiology, because he made the first microscopic observation of bacteria in human history, published in 1683. For the naked human eyes, bacterial cells are too small to observe, and the development of microscopy techniques has since then been fundamental for examining bacterial cells. Recent advances in visualizing tools, including uses of fluorescent tags, super-resolution microscopy, and cryo-electron tomography, have even enabled us to scrutinize the inside of bacterial cells. Our understanding of bacterial cellular organization has remarkably progressed in the last 2 decades. It turned out that bacteria have a very elaborate cellular organization, and that not only the temporal, but also spatial orchestration of different cellular processes is essential for the viability of cells. Thus, the once prevailing notion of ‘bacteria as bags of randomly diffusing enzymes and chemicals’ was completely wrong. But, how do bacteria, lacking any membrane bound-organelles, achieve the intricate cellular organization in their cytoplasm?

Bacterial cytoskeletons mediate spatial organization of proteins. Bacteria were shown to possess counterparts of major eukaryotic cytoskeleton components, such as the actin homologue MreB or the tubulin homologue FtsZ, but bacteria-specific cytoskeletal proteins with no eukaryotic counterparts have also been identified. There have been numerous studies to characterize bacterial cytoskeletons using in vivo, biochemistry or structural biology tools. However, how bacterial cytoskeletons are interacting with each other in the cytoplasm has not been well explored in bacteria. One of the aims of this thesis is to expose the biological significance of interplays between cytoskeletal proteins in our model system.

This thesis concerns one type of cytoskeletal proteins, so-called coiled coil proteins that contribute to spatial organization of other proteins by acting as scaffolds, and can also provide mechanical strength to cells. We have particularly focused on bacterial intermediate filament-like proteins that display similar properties to metazoan intermediate filament (IF) proteins. IFs, actin microfilaments and microtubules constitute the three main cytoskeletal systems of metazoan cells. Used organism in this thesis is Steptomyces, a soil-dwelling mycelial bacterium belonging to the phylum Actinobacteria that is well known for production of a large variety of secondary metabolites, including antibiotics. However, my study exploited Streptomyces as a model organism in cell biology. Streptomyces has a unique mode of growth, it grows both by extending the tips of multicellular hyphae, and by forming new branches. It also exhibits a truly complex life cycle (Figure. 1), offering a genetically tractable system to learn fundamental processes such as cell polarity or regulated differentiation.

Our group previously reported that a coiled coil protein called FilP (filament-forming protein) in Streptomyces, has several properties of IF proteins. For example, FilP forms filaments without any cofactors in vitro, and assembles into cytoskeletal structures in vivo that contribute to the rigidity and elasticity of Streptomyces hyphae. An important function of animal IFs, such as keratins in the skin cells, is to give mechanical strength to the cells and support their integrity in stress conditions. Studies of human IFs, however, are technically challenging because they need to be studied in differentiated animal cells. Further investigation of FilP properties in a genetically and cell-biologically tractable Streptomyces might thus be useful in understanding the basic molecular mechanisms of human IFs.

The investigation of coiled coil cytoskeletons was also extended to studying the cellular responses to hyper-osmotic stress in Streptomyces. Our motivations for the study were to understand 1) what are the biological roles of coiled coil cytoskeletons during osmotic stress in Streptomyces, 2) if turgor is a driving force in Streptomyces cell elongation, as suggested for rod-shaped bacteria and shown in several eukaryotic tip-growing organisms.

The first chapter (Chapter I) of the thesis gives a general background on the topics of coiled coil proteins, Streptomyces apical growth, Streptomyces coiled coil cytoskeletons, and osmotic stress responses in bacteria. In Chapter II, my own research will be presented and discussed. The main focus is to elucidate the mechanism how intrinsically non-dynamic FilP behaves dynamically in hyphae, and the biological function of FilP as a bona fide cytoskeleton. These two will be discussed in relation to interactions between FilP and DivIVA, in vitro polymerization of FilP network, and polarisome complex of Streptomyces hyphae. At the end, our new finding in Streptomyces cellular response to osmotic stress will be discussed. (Less)
Abstract
Coiled coil proteins emerge as important determinants of bacterial cellular organization. Several such proteins display properties characteristic to metazoan intermediate filament (IF) proteins, and are therefore designated bacterial IF-like proteins. The best studied examples of the latter are crescentin in Caulobacter crescentus that determines the curved cell shape, and FilP (filament forming-protein) in Streptomyces.

The aim of this thesis was further characterization of the bacterial IF-like protein FilP in the medically and industrially important model organisms of genus Streptomyces, which are multicellular and mycelial bacteria. Previously, it was shown that FilP spontaneously and without any co-factor polymerizes into... (More)
Coiled coil proteins emerge as important determinants of bacterial cellular organization. Several such proteins display properties characteristic to metazoan intermediate filament (IF) proteins, and are therefore designated bacterial IF-like proteins. The best studied examples of the latter are crescentin in Caulobacter crescentus that determines the curved cell shape, and FilP (filament forming-protein) in Streptomyces.

The aim of this thesis was further characterization of the bacterial IF-like protein FilP in the medically and industrially important model organisms of genus Streptomyces, which are multicellular and mycelial bacteria. Previously, it was shown that FilP spontaneously and without any co-factor polymerizes into filaments in vitro, and that FilP is required for maintaining regular stiffness, elasticity and morphology of the hyphae. In this study we showed that FilP can assemble into tightly interconnected network structure in vitro, that is likely to possess high viscoelasticity, which can explain the role of FilP in hyphal stiffness. By immuno-staining technique FilP was shown to localize to the apical portions of the hyphae in a form of a gradient during active growth. Fluorescence time-lapse microscopy using fluorescently tagged derivatives of FilP showed that the FilP cytoskeleton is dynamically remodeled during growth, and that several different mechanisms including degradation, contribute to the turnover of FilP cytoskeleton and dynamically maintain the apical gradients of the FilP network. Additionally, our data showed that FilP is recruited the tips of the hyphae via an interaction with DivIVA, the determinant of Streptomyces polar growth. We propose a model whereby DivIVA recruits FilP to the apical regions to provide a mechanical support to the intrinsically weak tips of hyphae during a growth.

Another avenue of research pursued in this thesis was to study the cell-biological aspects of osmotic stress response. We revealed a so far uncharacterized cellular response of Streptomyces to hyperosmotic stress, which involved complete reprogramming of cell polarity and redistribution of growth sites from hyphal tips to lateral walls, resulting in extensive de novo branch formation. Besides re-arrangement of coiled coil cytoskeletons DivIVA and FilP this response also involved hyper-condensation of nucleoids, slow recovery of turgor, and a change in the fluidity of the cytoplasm.

In summary, my study has revealed several new aspects concerning the working principles of the IF-like FilP cytoskeleton, and might even offer insights into the so far poorly understood role of the IF cytoskeleton in metazoan cells. Our cell-biological study of osmotic stress response has shed new light on bacterial stress responses, which have seldom been studied on single-cell level. (Less)
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author
supervisor
opponent
  • Muth, Günther, Interfaculty Institute of Microbiology and Infection Medicine, University of Tübingen, Germany
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Coiled coil protein, Streptomyces coelicolor, polar growth, osmotic-stress response, turgor
pages
110 pages
publisher
Department of Biology, Lund University
defense location
the Biology Lecture Hall, Sölvegatan 35, Lund
defense date
2015-03-26 10:00
ISBN
978-91-7623-265-1
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
9a16395d-72cc-43e6-8ab7-f0a78403b2dc (old id 5148145)
date added to LUP
2015-03-03 16:58:33
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:03
@phdthesis{9a16395d-72cc-43e6-8ab7-f0a78403b2dc,
  abstract     = {Coiled coil proteins emerge as important determinants of bacterial cellular organization. Several such proteins display properties characteristic to metazoan intermediate filament (IF) proteins, and are therefore designated bacterial IF-like proteins. The best studied examples of the latter are crescentin in Caulobacter crescentus that determines the curved cell shape, and FilP (filament forming-protein) in Streptomyces. <br/><br>
The aim of this thesis was further characterization of the bacterial IF-like protein FilP in the medically and industrially important model organisms of genus Streptomyces, which are multicellular and mycelial bacteria. Previously, it was shown that FilP spontaneously and without any co-factor polymerizes into filaments in vitro, and that FilP is required for maintaining regular stiffness, elasticity and morphology of the hyphae. In this study we showed that FilP can assemble into tightly interconnected network structure in vitro, that is likely to possess high viscoelasticity, which can explain the role of FilP in hyphal stiffness. By immuno-staining technique FilP was shown to localize to the apical portions of the hyphae in a form of a gradient during active growth. Fluorescence time-lapse microscopy using fluorescently tagged derivatives of FilP showed that the FilP cytoskeleton is dynamically remodeled during growth, and that several different mechanisms including degradation, contribute to the turnover of FilP cytoskeleton and dynamically maintain the apical gradients of the FilP network. Additionally, our data showed that FilP is recruited the tips of the hyphae via an interaction with DivIVA, the determinant of Streptomyces polar growth. We propose a model whereby DivIVA recruits FilP to the apical regions to provide a mechanical support to the intrinsically weak tips of hyphae during a growth. <br/><br>
Another avenue of research pursued in this thesis was to study the cell-biological aspects of osmotic stress response. We revealed a so far uncharacterized cellular response of Streptomyces to hyperosmotic stress, which involved complete reprogramming of cell polarity and redistribution of growth sites from hyphal tips to lateral walls, resulting in extensive de novo branch formation. Besides re-arrangement of coiled coil cytoskeletons DivIVA and FilP this response also involved hyper-condensation of nucleoids, slow recovery of turgor, and a change in the fluidity of the cytoplasm. <br/><br>
In summary, my study has revealed several new aspects concerning the working principles of the IF-like FilP cytoskeleton, and might even offer insights into the so far poorly understood role of the IF cytoskeleton in metazoan cells. Our cell-biological study of osmotic stress response has shed new light on bacterial stress responses, which have seldom been studied on single-cell level.},
  author       = {Fuchino, Katsuya},
  isbn         = {978-91-7623-265-1},
  keyword      = {Coiled coil protein,Streptomyces coelicolor,polar growth,osmotic-stress response,turgor},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {110},
  publisher    = {Department of Biology, Lund University},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {Coiled coil cytoskeleton in cell architecture and osmotic stress response in Streptomyces},
  year         = {2015},
}