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Konstruktionen av det heliga. Altarna i det medeltida Lunds stift

Karlsson, Mattias LU (2015) In Skånsk senmedeltid och renässans 23.
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

För firande av mässa i den katolska kyrkan krävs ett altare av sten. Altaret ska invigas av en biskop enligt en viss ritual. Ett viktigt element i altarinvigningsritualen är placeringen av reliker i altarets inre. Före reformationen på 1500-talet gällde denna regel även i Norden. Trots altarnas centrala betydelse i den medeltida nordiska kyrkan har de ägnats liten uppmärksamhet i forskningen. Ett par anledningar till detta kan vara att altarna i regel var enkelt utformade och att de bevarade altarna är få: många altaren har försvunnit eller byggts om efter reformationen. De medeltida altarna utgör en potentiell källa till kunskap om de tankemönster och den praktik som utgjorde den medeltida... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

För firande av mässa i den katolska kyrkan krävs ett altare av sten. Altaret ska invigas av en biskop enligt en viss ritual. Ett viktigt element i altarinvigningsritualen är placeringen av reliker i altarets inre. Före reformationen på 1500-talet gällde denna regel även i Norden. Trots altarnas centrala betydelse i den medeltida nordiska kyrkan har de ägnats liten uppmärksamhet i forskningen. Ett par anledningar till detta kan vara att altarna i regel var enkelt utformade och att de bevarade altarna är få: många altaren har försvunnit eller byggts om efter reformationen. De medeltida altarna utgör en potentiell källa till kunskap om de tankemönster och den praktik som utgjorde den medeltida kyrkan och religionen. I avhandlingen Konstruktionen av det heliga. Altarna i det medeltida Lunds stift (2015) undersöks flera olika aspekter på ämnet altaren. En viktig fråga har handlat om hur altarna fysiskt och rituellt har konstruerats. För att söka svar på denna fråga har de fysiska lämningarna av altaren i Lunds stift inventerats, ett ofta fragmentariskt och svåråtkomligt material. Ett viktigt resultat av undersökningen är att det blivit mera tydligt hur variationen i altarnas fysiska konstruktion är beroende av historiska och geografiska faktorer: i de nordiska stiften utvecklades olika traditioner om altarnas utformning som ändock på olika sätt var förankrade i kyrkans föreskrifter och ideal. I kyrkorna fanns det ofta flera sidoaltaren vid sidan om högaltaret. Firandet av olika mässor vid olika altaren skapade en dynamik i den religiösa praktiken och en känsla för olika rums ”helighet”. I Lunds domkyrka fanns i slutet av medeltiden omkring 70 altaren. De äldsta sidoaltarna som invigdes under 1100-talet förefaller att ha planlagts som en del i ett större gemensamt program för domkyrkan som symboliskt och liturgiskt rum. De flesta sidoaltaren tillkom emellertid från 1200-talets andra hälft. Vid dem firades ”eviga” mässor till åminnelse av privata stiftare. Ett intressant resultat är att flera av dessa hög- och senmedeltida altaren anpassats efter domkyrkans särskilda ”liturgiska profil”: placeringarna och titlarna på altarna men också utformningen av mässfirandet vid dem tyder på det. Även i enklare sockenkyrkor fanns oftast sidoaltaren. Redan under 1100-talet var det vanligt med två sidoaltaren i långhusets östra hörn intill triumfmuren. Hur olika slags mässor fördelats mellan högaltare och sidoaltaren i de mindre kyrkorna är oklart. Utifrån motiv på kalkmålningar och analogier med bättre kända kyrkor, exempelvis Lunds domkyrka och kyrkor i Europa, görs tolkningen att de viktiga mässorna i samband med begravning och den årliga minnesmässan av begravningen hölls vid högaltaret, medan mässor av mindre dignitet hölls vid sidoaltarna. (Less)
Abstract
This dissertation deals with the subject of altars in the churches of the medieval diocese of Lund. The main work on altars in the Catholic church is Joseph Braun´s Der christliche Altar in seiner geschichtlichen Entwicklung (1924). However, despite its extensive content it does not deal with the conditions in Northern

Europe. The general aim of this dissertation is to broaden our knowledge about altars in Northern Europe and,specifically, in the diocese of Lund: how were altars physically constructed, how many altars were there in different churches, and what was the significance of where altars were placed and what differentiated side-altars from main-altars in terms of types of masses performed. The line of investigation... (More)
This dissertation deals with the subject of altars in the churches of the medieval diocese of Lund. The main work on altars in the Catholic church is Joseph Braun´s Der christliche Altar in seiner geschichtlichen Entwicklung (1924). However, despite its extensive content it does not deal with the conditions in Northern

Europe. The general aim of this dissertation is to broaden our knowledge about altars in Northern Europe and,specifically, in the diocese of Lund: how were altars physically constructed, how many altars were there in different churches, and what was the significance of where altars were placed and what differentiated side-altars from main-altars in terms of types of masses performed. The line of investigation follows different paths and many details are discussed in depth, all related to the same theme: how the altars, i. e. the “holy”, were constructed. Chapter 1 is an introduction in the subject of altars and deals mainly with the sacred and associated conceptual categories. Chapter 2 is a research survey: important perspectives and lines of investigation on altars are outlined with an emphasis on the Nordic countries. Chapter 3 deals with the physical

construction of altars in the diocese of Lund. A number of different details that make up an altar are examined. The results point to notable geographical and chronological differences in the way altars were constructed. Chapter 4 is a survey of the altars in the cathedral of Lund, mainly based on written sources. The earliest altars,

dedicated during the 12th century, can be seen against the background of a coherent symbolical and liturgical program. The increased number of side-altars in Lund cathedral from the second half of the 13th century was often founded by individuals as “private” altars, but the placement of these altars and degree of solemnity in the

performance of the masses can be related to an idea of the cathedral as a differentiated holy space. The placement and names (dedications) of many side-altars can imply that they were “private” in one sense but also were seen as and can have functioned as proxy-altars in what can be described as the cathedrals “official”

liturgy. Chapter 5 deals with the altars in the lesser churches in the diocese of Lund, most of them being parish-churches. The first part is a survey of the evidence for side-altars in different parts (e. g.: nave, porch,chapel and tower) of the churches. The second part discusses the function, i.e. in relation to the main-altar, of

side-altars placed in both eastern corners of the nave, a common thing through the middle -ages, and in upper levels of towers in the Romanesque era. Chapter 6 discusses the fate of Catholic altars in the age of the Reformation and later on the awakening antiquarian interest for the remaining altars. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • docent Lovén, Christian, Riksarkivet
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
altars, portable altars, relics, tabula, mensa, stipes, churches, middle-ages, Lund cathedral, diocese of Lund, Denmark, Skåne, Blekinge, Halland, Bornholm
in
Skånsk senmedeltid och renässans
volume
23
pages
615 pages
publisher
Vetenskapssocieteten i Lund
defense location
Kulturens auditorium, Tegnérsplatsen, Lund
defense date
2015-06-05 13:15
ISSN
0560-1878
ISBN
978-91-980551-3-9
language
Swedish
LU publication?
yes
id
8b7ae950-bebc-4db9-95c6-5d300dbe5db0 (old id 5366220)
date added to LUP
2015-05-07 11:26:47
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:49
@phdthesis{8b7ae950-bebc-4db9-95c6-5d300dbe5db0,
  abstract     = {This dissertation deals with the subject of altars in the churches of the medieval diocese of Lund. The main work on altars in the Catholic church is Joseph Braun´s Der christliche Altar in seiner geschichtlichen Entwicklung (1924). However, despite its extensive content it does not deal with the conditions in Northern<br/><br>
Europe. The general aim of this dissertation is to broaden our knowledge about altars in Northern Europe and,specifically, in the diocese of Lund: how were altars physically constructed, how many altars were there in different churches, and what was the significance of where altars were placed and what differentiated side-altars from main-altars in terms of types of masses performed. The line of investigation follows different paths and many details are discussed in depth, all related to the same theme: how the altars, i. e. the “holy”, were constructed. Chapter 1 is an introduction in the subject of altars and deals mainly with the sacred and associated conceptual categories. Chapter 2 is a research survey: important perspectives and lines of investigation on altars are outlined with an emphasis on the Nordic countries. Chapter 3 deals with the physical<br/><br>
construction of altars in the diocese of Lund. A number of different details that make up an altar are examined. The results point to notable geographical and chronological differences in the way altars were constructed. Chapter 4 is a survey of the altars in the cathedral of Lund, mainly based on written sources. The earliest altars,<br/><br>
dedicated during the 12th century, can be seen against the background of a coherent symbolical and liturgical program. The increased number of side-altars in Lund cathedral from the second half of the 13th century was often founded by individuals as “private” altars, but the placement of these altars and degree of solemnity in the<br/><br>
performance of the masses can be related to an idea of the cathedral as a differentiated holy space. The placement and names (dedications) of many side-altars can imply that they were “private” in one sense but also were seen as and can have functioned as proxy-altars in what can be described as the cathedrals “official”<br/><br>
liturgy. Chapter 5 deals with the altars in the lesser churches in the diocese of Lund, most of them being parish-churches. The first part is a survey of the evidence for side-altars in different parts (e. g.: nave, porch,chapel and tower) of the churches. The second part discusses the function, i.e. in relation to the main-altar, of<br/><br>
side-altars placed in both eastern corners of the nave, a common thing through the middle -ages, and in upper levels of towers in the Romanesque era. Chapter 6 discusses the fate of Catholic altars in the age of the Reformation and later on the awakening antiquarian interest for the remaining altars.},
  author       = {Karlsson, Mattias},
  isbn         = {978-91-980551-3-9},
  issn         = {0560-1878},
  keyword      = {altars,portable altars,relics,tabula,mensa,stipes,churches,middle-ages,Lund cathedral,diocese of Lund,Denmark,Skåne,Blekinge,Halland,Bornholm},
  language     = {swe},
  pages        = {615},
  publisher    = {Vetenskapssocieteten i Lund},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {Skånsk senmedeltid och renässans},
  title        = {Konstruktionen av det heliga. Altarna i det medeltida Lunds stift},
  volume       = {23},
  year         = {2015},
}