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Mineral element contents in drinking water - aspects on quality and potential links to human health

Rosborg, Ingegerd LU (2005)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Mineraler fås från både fast och flytande föda. De senaste årtiondena har bordsvattenkonsumtionen ökat, och vattnets kemiska innehåll har alltmer kommit i fokus. Studier visar dessutom att grönsakers mineralinnehåll har minskat, vilket ökar betydelsen av mineralintag från annat håll.



Den här doktorsavhandlingen omfattar fyra olika studier. I den första studien undersöktes 20 kommunala vatten i Sydsverige, som representerar olika berggrund och vattenbehandling. Analys av ett 25-tal mineralämnen gjordes på både råvatten och behandlat vatten. I en andra studie analyserades 33 olika bordsvatten på den svenska marknaden på ett 40-tal mineralämnen. I den tredje studien undersöktes... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Mineraler fås från både fast och flytande föda. De senaste årtiondena har bordsvattenkonsumtionen ökat, och vattnets kemiska innehåll har alltmer kommit i fokus. Studier visar dessutom att grönsakers mineralinnehåll har minskat, vilket ökar betydelsen av mineralintag från annat håll.



Den här doktorsavhandlingen omfattar fyra olika studier. I den första studien undersöktes 20 kommunala vatten i Sydsverige, som representerar olika berggrund och vattenbehandling. Analys av ett 25-tal mineralämnen gjordes på både råvatten och behandlat vatten. I en andra studie analyserades 33 olika bordsvatten på den svenska marknaden på ett 40-tal mineralämnen. I den tredje studien undersöktes mineralinnehållet i 46 sura och 43 alkaliska brunnsvatten. De sura brunnarna letades upp i näringsfattiga områden i norra Skåne, SV Småland samt gamla Älvsborgs län och de alkaliska hittades på Kristianstadsslätten. Kvinnor som druckit brunnsvattnet intervjuades om eventuella hälsoförändringar och deltagarna lämnade även ett hårprov för analys av samma mineralämnen som i vattnet. Den fjärde studien gjordes på 38 fibromyalgisjuka kvinnor och 41 referenskvinnor, parvis i samma ålder och boende i samma församling. Deltagarnas dricksvatten, blod, urin och hår analyserades på ett 30-tal mineralämnen och de fick fylla i en enkät.



Studierna av brunnsvatten och kommunala vatten visade att vatten från urbergsområden hade betydligt lägre halter av t.ex. kalcium, bikarbonat, molybden, selen och sulfat än vatten från kalkrika områden. De högsta koncentrationerna av nämnda ämnen låg i pH-intervallet 7-8. Vid lägre pH hade ämnena lakats ur till lägre liggande grundvatten eller ytvatten, medan de fällts ut vid högre pH. Färre kvinnor rapporterade sig vara friska bland kvinnor som drack sura brunnsvatten än alkaliska. Användningen av järn- och manganfilter i de kommunala vattnen minskade i vissa fall halterna till under detektionsgränsen. Avhärdningsfilter skapade i vissa fall vatten med mineralhalter som låg i nivå med de allra mjukaste vattnen i undersökningen. pH-höjande medel som kaustiksoda (natriumhydroxid), soda eller kalk förändrade mineralinnehållet i vattnet i hög grad förutom att pH höjdes. Halterna av skadliga metaller som aluminium, bly och uran var låga.



I studien av bordsvatten hade 10 märken kalciumhalter under 10 mg/l och magnesiumkoncentrationer under 3 mg/l, dvs de var mycket mineralfattiga. Dessa vatten kom från urbergsområden. Nio märken hade å andra sidan mycket höga halter av kalcium och magnesium, maximum 289 mg/L för kalcium och mer än 90 mg/L för magnesium. Två mjuka, kolsyrade vatten hade tillsatser av natriumsalter, vilket resulterade i höga natriumhalter, 644 och 648 mg/L (median: 24,7 mg/l) samt klorid, 204 och 219 mg/L (median: 15,8 mg/l). Kolsyrat vatten köpt på aluminiumburk föreföll inte lämpligt, då aluminiumkoncentrationen var högre här än i glasflaska av samma märke.



Trots att referenskvinnorna valdes från ett område med samma kommunala vatten hade fibromyalgikvinnorna lägre koncentration av många mineralämnen i sitt dricksvatten jämfört med referenskvinnorna. Inget uppenbart förändrat mineralmönster i vatten, hår, urin eller blod kunde dock identifieras hos fibromyalgikvinnorna vid jämförelse med referenterna. Ett större antal fibromyalgisjuka hade blivit opererade i bålen, innan sjukdomen brutit ut, än friska kvinnor.



Det dagliga tillskottet av mineraler från dricksvatten varierade väsentligt och behovet av rekommenderade lämpliga mineralintervall för dricksvatten identifierades. Ett förslag presenteras med dagens kunskaper som grund. (Less)
Abstract
Mineral elements in drinking water have been in focus for more than a decade, especially as the habit of drinking bottled water has increased, not the least among young people. Minerals in drinking water have become more important since minerals in food, especially in vegetables, have decreased substantially the last decades. This thesis includes four different studies. In the first study 20 municipal raw and treated waters in southern Sweden were investigated. In the second study the concentrations of about 44 metals and ions in 33 different brands of bottled waters on the Swedish market were determined. In the third study 46 acid well waters from acid regions dominated by primary rocks of gneiss and granite were compared with 43 well... (More)
Mineral elements in drinking water have been in focus for more than a decade, especially as the habit of drinking bottled water has increased, not the least among young people. Minerals in drinking water have become more important since minerals in food, especially in vegetables, have decreased substantially the last decades. This thesis includes four different studies. In the first study 20 municipal raw and treated waters in southern Sweden were investigated. In the second study the concentrations of about 44 metals and ions in 33 different brands of bottled waters on the Swedish market were determined. In the third study 46 acid well waters from acid regions dominated by primary rocks of gneiss and granite were compared with 43 well waters in a district in southern Sweden situated on limestone sediments. Hair samples were obtained from all participants, who also answered a questionnaire about their self-experienced health status. In the last study the concentrations of about 30 trace elements and ions were determined in blood, urine, hair and drinking water in 38 women with defined fibromyalgia and 41 referent women, matched for age and location.



The studies of well waters and municipal waters showed that water with primary rock bedrock origin had significantly lower concentrations of elements like Ca, HCO3, Mo, Se and SO4 than water from lime stone bedrock. The highest concentrations of a number of ions, e.g. Ca, HCO3, Cr, Sr, Mg and Ti were at pH 7-8 in well waters. At lower pH-values the ions probably had been leached, and at higher pH they probably were precipitated as sulphates, carbonates and hydroxides. Cu showed a concentration peak around pH 6. Fewer women drinking acid well water reported themselves as healthy compared to women drinking alkaline well water.



The method for elimination of Fe and Mn from raw municipal water was efficient in all treatment plants investigated, at some plants giving concentrations in the treated water below the detection limits. Softening filters produced water with Ca-concentrations comparable to the softest waters. Adjustment of pH by the use of chemicals like lye, soda or limestone, modified the consumer water composition significantly, besides raising the pH, where limestone increased Ca and many other elements. The concentrations of potentially toxic metals such as Al, Pb and U were low. In the study of bottled waters ten of the 33 brands showed Ca concentrations below 10 mg L-1 and Mg levels below 3 mg L-1, i.e. they were very mineral poor waters. These brands were collected from areas with thin soils on primary rock bedrock. Nine of the brands were collected from limestone regions. They had high Ca-levels, with a maximum of 289 mg L-1 and Mg exceeding 90 mg L-1 in two brands. Two soft and carbonated waters were supplemented with Na2CO3 and NaCl, resulting in high concentrations of Na: 644 and 648 mg L-1 and Cl: 204 and 219 mg L-1. Storage of carbonated drinking water in Al cans seemed to increase the Al-concentration.



Despite choosing referents from the same parish, the fibromyalgia women had lower concentrations of many elements and ions in drinking water compared to the referents in the fibromyalgia study. No obvious changed mineral pattern was observed in blood, water, urine or hair of women with fibromyalgia compared to referents.



The daily contribution of mineral elements from different drinking waters varied substantially, depending on e.g. the bedrock situation, acidification, water treatment methods. Suitable levels of minerals elements in drinking water are suggested. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • professor Jacks, Gunnar, KTH
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Teknik, Technological sciences, Naturvetenskap, Natural science, water treatment effects, hair concentrations, pH, magnesium, calcium, bicarbonate, drinking water, minerals
pages
100 pages
publisher
Inst. of Chemical Engineering, LTH
defense location
Room: Stora Hörsalen, Ingvar Kamprad Design Centre, Sölvegatan 26, Lund Institute of Technology.
defense date
2005-09-30 13:30
ISBN
91-628-6634-6
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
84294e14-3559-4595-b812-4f1f21444cc3 (old id 545362)
date added to LUP
2007-10-13 13:10:12
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:10
@phdthesis{84294e14-3559-4595-b812-4f1f21444cc3,
  abstract     = {Mineral elements in drinking water have been in focus for more than a decade, especially as the habit of drinking bottled water has increased, not the least among young people. Minerals in drinking water have become more important since minerals in food, especially in vegetables, have decreased substantially the last decades. This thesis includes four different studies. In the first study 20 municipal raw and treated waters in southern Sweden were investigated. In the second study the concentrations of about 44 metals and ions in 33 different brands of bottled waters on the Swedish market were determined. In the third study 46 acid well waters from acid regions dominated by primary rocks of gneiss and granite were compared with 43 well waters in a district in southern Sweden situated on limestone sediments. Hair samples were obtained from all participants, who also answered a questionnaire about their self-experienced health status. In the last study the concentrations of about 30 trace elements and ions were determined in blood, urine, hair and drinking water in 38 women with defined fibromyalgia and 41 referent women, matched for age and location.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The studies of well waters and municipal waters showed that water with primary rock bedrock origin had significantly lower concentrations of elements like Ca, HCO3, Mo, Se and SO4 than water from lime stone bedrock. The highest concentrations of a number of ions, e.g. Ca, HCO3, Cr, Sr, Mg and Ti were at pH 7-8 in well waters. At lower pH-values the ions probably had been leached, and at higher pH they probably were precipitated as sulphates, carbonates and hydroxides. Cu showed a concentration peak around pH 6. Fewer women drinking acid well water reported themselves as healthy compared to women drinking alkaline well water.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The method for elimination of Fe and Mn from raw municipal water was efficient in all treatment plants investigated, at some plants giving concentrations in the treated water below the detection limits. Softening filters produced water with Ca-concentrations comparable to the softest waters. Adjustment of pH by the use of chemicals like lye, soda or limestone, modified the consumer water composition significantly, besides raising the pH, where limestone increased Ca and many other elements. The concentrations of potentially toxic metals such as Al, Pb and U were low. In the study of bottled waters ten of the 33 brands showed Ca concentrations below 10 mg L-1 and Mg levels below 3 mg L-1, i.e. they were very mineral poor waters. These brands were collected from areas with thin soils on primary rock bedrock. Nine of the brands were collected from limestone regions. They had high Ca-levels, with a maximum of 289 mg L-1 and Mg exceeding 90 mg L-1 in two brands. Two soft and carbonated waters were supplemented with Na2CO3 and NaCl, resulting in high concentrations of Na: 644 and 648 mg L-1 and Cl: 204 and 219 mg L-1. Storage of carbonated drinking water in Al cans seemed to increase the Al-concentration.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Despite choosing referents from the same parish, the fibromyalgia women had lower concentrations of many elements and ions in drinking water compared to the referents in the fibromyalgia study. No obvious changed mineral pattern was observed in blood, water, urine or hair of women with fibromyalgia compared to referents.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The daily contribution of mineral elements from different drinking waters varied substantially, depending on e.g. the bedrock situation, acidification, water treatment methods. Suitable levels of minerals elements in drinking water are suggested.},
  author       = {Rosborg, Ingegerd},
  isbn         = {91-628-6634-6},
  keyword      = {Teknik,Technological sciences,Naturvetenskap,Natural science,water treatment effects,hair concentrations,pH,magnesium,calcium,bicarbonate,drinking water,minerals},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {100},
  publisher    = {Inst. of Chemical Engineering, LTH},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {Mineral element contents in drinking water - aspects on quality and potential links to human health},
  year         = {2005},
}