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External costs of transports imposed on neighbours and fellow road users

Winslott Hiselius, Lena LU (2005) In Lund Economic Studies no 130
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Avhandlingen består av en introduktion samt fyra artiklar. Avhandlingen behandlar externa kostnader till följd av väg- och järnvägstransporter. Den första artikeln skattar sambandet mellan antalet vägtrafikolyckor och antalet fordon på vägen. Fordonsflödet behandlas dels som bestående av homogena fordon och dels som bestående av bilar och lastbilar. Resultatet tyder på att olycksrisken minskar ju med fordon det är på vägen. Om vi tittar på effekten av olika fordonstyper ökar olyckrisken med antalet personbilar medan den sjunker med ett ökat antal lastbilar.



Den andra artikeln är en litteraturöversikt som behandlar värdet av säkerhet inom väg- och järnvägssektorn genom att... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Avhandlingen består av en introduktion samt fyra artiklar. Avhandlingen behandlar externa kostnader till följd av väg- och järnvägstransporter. Den första artikeln skattar sambandet mellan antalet vägtrafikolyckor och antalet fordon på vägen. Fordonsflödet behandlas dels som bestående av homogena fordon och dels som bestående av bilar och lastbilar. Resultatet tyder på att olycksrisken minskar ju med fordon det är på vägen. Om vi tittar på effekten av olika fordonstyper ökar olyckrisken med antalet personbilar medan den sjunker med ett ökat antal lastbilar.



Den andra artikeln är en litteraturöversikt som behandlar värdet av säkerhet inom väg- och järnvägssektorn genom att kombinera psykologiska studier med ekonomisk litteratur. Genomgången visar på att olika värden av säkerhet kan motiveras teoretiskt inom olika trafikområden men då empiriska studier genomförs kan inte några större skillnader påvisas.



Genomgången visar även på att hänsyn bör tas till skillnader i säkerhet mellan olika typer av olyckor och inte bara på olika typer av transportområden.



Den tredje artikeln behandlar närboendes inställning till farligtgodstransporter på järnväg. Studien genomförs med hjälp av Choice experiment metoden. Individernas exponering för farligt gods används för att beskriva olika transport utformningar. Studien visar på att metoden fungerar och att individernas preferenser gentemot dessa transporter kan studeras.



I den fjärde artikeln studeras individers inställning till farligt gods transporter på väg. I studien analyseras förekomsten av hypotetiskt bias genom att individerna får ange om de skulle välja på samma sätt i en verklig folkomröstning om farlig gods transporter som de gjort i enkäten. Även förekomsten av fokuserings effekt studeras. Resultatet tyder på att individer som är säkra på sina svar (skulle valt på samma sätt i en verklig folkomröstning) uttrycker högre betalningsvilja för en minskad exponering av farligtgods än de som är osäkra. Vidare kan ingen fokuserings effekt urskiljas. (Less)
Abstract
This thesis consists of an introductory chapter and four research papers, summarized as follows. The overall purpose is to study various external effects of the transport system; effects that are not considered (or not fully considered) today.



The first paper estimates the relationship between accident frequency and homogeneous and inhomogeneous traffic flows, which is useful for calculating the marginal external accident cost of the traffic flow. We find that important information is lost if differences between traffic modes are not considered. The indication is that an additional vehicle on the road decreases the accident risk. Separating the traffic flow into cars and lorries, we find that an additional car increases... (More)
This thesis consists of an introductory chapter and four research papers, summarized as follows. The overall purpose is to study various external effects of the transport system; effects that are not considered (or not fully considered) today.



The first paper estimates the relationship between accident frequency and homogeneous and inhomogeneous traffic flows, which is useful for calculating the marginal external accident cost of the traffic flow. We find that important information is lost if differences between traffic modes are not considered. The indication is that an additional vehicle on the road decreases the accident risk. Separating the traffic flow into cars and lorries, we find that an additional car increases the accident risk whereas an additional lorry lowers the accident risk.



The second paper, a literature overview, discusses the value of road and railway safety by combining the results of psychological and economical studies. Various factors that possibly influence individuals? perception of risk and their willingness to trade risk for money are examined. We find that the use of different values within different contexts may be motivated. The findings imply, furthermore, that studies estimating the value of safety should focus not only on disparities between transport modes per se but also on disparities between accident types.



In the third paper, the choice experiment approach is used to assess people's preferences regarding railway transports of hazardous materials. Exposure to hazardous materials is used to describe various transport configurations. It is shown that the choice experiment method as well as the use of exposure can be applied within this area.



In the final paper, preferences regarding road transports of hazardous materials are examined. The method and design are the same as used in the previous paper but with special attention given to the presence of biases. The presence of hypothetical bias is tested for by the use of self-reported degree of confidence, and the presence of a focusing effect explored by the inclusion of information on other fatal risks. We find that there are no major differences in individual preferences regarding hazardous materials transported by rail or road. It is also found that individuals that are confident in their answers express higher values of willingness to pay (accept a compensation) for a reduction (increase) in exposure. Finally, no focusing effect can be detected. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Professor Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte, Institut for Sundhedstjensteforskning, Syddansk Universitet
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
economic systems, economic theory, econometrics, Economics, Samhällsvetenskaper, Social sciences, Hazardous materials, Hourly traffic flow, Choice experiments, Accident prediction models, External costs, economic policy, Nationalekonomi, ekonometri, ekonomisk teori, ekonomiska system, ekonomisk politik
in
Lund Economic Studies no 130
publisher
Department of Economics, Lund Universtiy
defense location
EC3:211
defense date
2005-11-18 10:15
ISSN
0460-0029
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
709843ff-cfa3-4eee-8a7e-7cd79f6f8dd3 (old id 545378)
date added to LUP
2007-09-27 11:31:13
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:55
@phdthesis{709843ff-cfa3-4eee-8a7e-7cd79f6f8dd3,
  abstract     = {This thesis consists of an introductory chapter and four research papers, summarized as follows. The overall purpose is to study various external effects of the transport system; effects that are not considered (or not fully considered) today.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The first paper estimates the relationship between accident frequency and homogeneous and inhomogeneous traffic flows, which is useful for calculating the marginal external accident cost of the traffic flow. We find that important information is lost if differences between traffic modes are not considered. The indication is that an additional vehicle on the road decreases the accident risk. Separating the traffic flow into cars and lorries, we find that an additional car increases the accident risk whereas an additional lorry lowers the accident risk.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The second paper, a literature overview, discusses the value of road and railway safety by combining the results of psychological and economical studies. Various factors that possibly influence individuals? perception of risk and their willingness to trade risk for money are examined. We find that the use of different values within different contexts may be motivated. The findings imply, furthermore, that studies estimating the value of safety should focus not only on disparities between transport modes per se but also on disparities between accident types.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
In the third paper, the choice experiment approach is used to assess people's preferences regarding railway transports of hazardous materials. Exposure to hazardous materials is used to describe various transport configurations. It is shown that the choice experiment method as well as the use of exposure can be applied within this area.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
In the final paper, preferences regarding road transports of hazardous materials are examined. The method and design are the same as used in the previous paper but with special attention given to the presence of biases. The presence of hypothetical bias is tested for by the use of self-reported degree of confidence, and the presence of a focusing effect explored by the inclusion of information on other fatal risks. We find that there are no major differences in individual preferences regarding hazardous materials transported by rail or road. It is also found that individuals that are confident in their answers express higher values of willingness to pay (accept a compensation) for a reduction (increase) in exposure. Finally, no focusing effect can be detected.},
  author       = {Winslott Hiselius, Lena},
  issn         = {0460-0029},
  keyword      = {economic systems,economic theory,econometrics,Economics,Samhällsvetenskaper,Social sciences,Hazardous materials,Hourly traffic flow,Choice experiments,Accident prediction models,External costs,economic policy,Nationalekonomi,ekonometri,ekonomisk teori,ekonomiska system,ekonomisk politik},
  language     = {eng},
  publisher    = {Department of Economics, Lund Universtiy},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {Lund Economic Studies no 130},
  title        = {External costs of transports imposed on neighbours and fellow road users},
  year         = {2005},
}