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Digital Hardware Aspects of Multiantenna Algorithms

Edman, Fredrik LU (2006)
Abstract
The field of wireless communication is growing rapidly, with new requirements for the next generation of mobile and wireless communications technology. In order to achieve the capacities needed for future wireless systems, the design and implementation of advanced communications techniques such as multiantenna systems is required. These systems are realized by computationally complex algorithms, requiring new digital hardware architectures to be developed. The development of efficient and scalable hardware building blocks for realization of multiantenna algorithms is the focus of this thesis.



The first part of the thesis deals with the implementation of complex valued division. Two architectures implementing a... (More)
The field of wireless communication is growing rapidly, with new requirements for the next generation of mobile and wireless communications technology. In order to achieve the capacities needed for future wireless systems, the design and implementation of advanced communications techniques such as multiantenna systems is required. These systems are realized by computationally complex algorithms, requiring new digital hardware architectures to be developed. The development of efficient and scalable hardware building blocks for realization of multiantenna algorithms is the focus of this thesis.



The first part of the thesis deals with the implementation of complex valued division. Two architectures implementing a numerically robust algorithm for computing complex valued division with standard arithmetic units are presented. The first architecture is based on a parallel computation scheme offering high throughput rate and low latency, while the second architecture is based on a resource conservative time-multiplexed computation scheme offering good throughput rate. The two implementations are compared to an implementation of a CORDIC based complex valued division.



The second part of the thesis discusses implementation aspects of fundamental matrix operations found in many multiantenna algorithms. Four matrix operations were implemented; triangular matrix inversion, QR-decomposition, matrix inversion, and singular value decomposition. Matrix operations are usually implemented using large arrays of processors, which are difficult to scale and consume a lot of resources. In this thesis a method based on the data flow was applied to map the algorithms to scalable linear arrays. An even more resource conservative design based on a single processing element was also derived. All the architectures are capable of handling complex valued data necessary for the implementation of communication algorithms.



In the third part of the thesis, developed building blocks are used to implement the Capon beamformer algorithm. Two architectures are presented; the first architecture is based on a linear data flow, while the second architecture utilizes the single processing element architecture. The Capon beamformer implementation is going to be used in a channel sounder to determine the direction-of-arrival of impinging signals. Therefore it was important to derive and implement flexible and scalable architectures to be able to adapt to different measuring scenarios. The linear flow architecture was implemented and tested with measured data from the channel sounder. By analyzing each block in the design, a minimum wordlength design could be derived.



The fourth part of the thesis presents a design methodology for hardware implementation on FPGA. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Associate Professor Koch, Peter, Aalborg University Denmark
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Beamforming, MIMO, FPGA, Implementation, Hardware, Matrix, Inversion, QR-decomposition, SVD, Capon, Signal processing, Signalbehandling, Electronics, Elektronik och elektroteknik, Elektronik, Telecommunication engineering, Telekommunikationsteknik, Electronics and Electrical technology
pages
198 pages
publisher
Department of Electroscience, Lund University
defense location
Room E:1406, E-building, Ole Römers väg 3, Lund Institute of Technology
defense date
2006-02-17 10:15:00
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
93a998a9-dbd1-4806-99b2-3106a792286d (old id 546196)
date added to LUP
2016-04-01 17:10:19
date last changed
2018-11-21 20:47:12
@phdthesis{93a998a9-dbd1-4806-99b2-3106a792286d,
  abstract     = {The field of wireless communication is growing rapidly, with new requirements for the next generation of mobile and wireless communications technology. In order to achieve the capacities needed for future wireless systems, the design and implementation of advanced communications techniques such as multiantenna systems is required. These systems are realized by computationally complex algorithms, requiring new digital hardware architectures to be developed. The development of efficient and scalable hardware building blocks for realization of multiantenna algorithms is the focus of this thesis.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The first part of the thesis deals with the implementation of complex valued division. Two architectures implementing a numerically robust algorithm for computing complex valued division with standard arithmetic units are presented. The first architecture is based on a parallel computation scheme offering high throughput rate and low latency, while the second architecture is based on a resource conservative time-multiplexed computation scheme offering good throughput rate. The two implementations are compared to an implementation of a CORDIC based complex valued division.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The second part of the thesis discusses implementation aspects of fundamental matrix operations found in many multiantenna algorithms. Four matrix operations were implemented; triangular matrix inversion, QR-decomposition, matrix inversion, and singular value decomposition. Matrix operations are usually implemented using large arrays of processors, which are difficult to scale and consume a lot of resources. In this thesis a method based on the data flow was applied to map the algorithms to scalable linear arrays. An even more resource conservative design based on a single processing element was also derived. All the architectures are capable of handling complex valued data necessary for the implementation of communication algorithms.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
In the third part of the thesis, developed building blocks are used to implement the Capon beamformer algorithm. Two architectures are presented; the first architecture is based on a linear data flow, while the second architecture utilizes the single processing element architecture. The Capon beamformer implementation is going to be used in a channel sounder to determine the direction-of-arrival of impinging signals. Therefore it was important to derive and implement flexible and scalable architectures to be able to adapt to different measuring scenarios. The linear flow architecture was implemented and tested with measured data from the channel sounder. By analyzing each block in the design, a minimum wordlength design could be derived.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The fourth part of the thesis presents a design methodology for hardware implementation on FPGA.},
  author       = {Edman, Fredrik},
  language     = {eng},
  publisher    = {Department of Electroscience, Lund University},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {Digital Hardware Aspects of Multiantenna Algorithms},
  year         = {2006},
}