Advanced

Social capital, income inequality and the social gradient in self-rated health in Latin America : A fixed effects analysis

Vincens, Natalia LU ; Emmelin, Maria LU and Stafström, Martin LU (2018) In Social Science and Medicine 196. p.115-122
Abstract

Latin America is the most unequal region in the world. The current sustainable development agenda increased attention to health inequity and its determinants in the region. Our aim is to investigate the social gradient in health in Latin America and assess the effects of social capital and income inequality on it. We used cross-sectional data from the World Values Survey and the World Bank. Our sample included 10,426 respondents in eight Latin American countries. Self-rated health was used as the outcome. Education level was the socioeconomic position indicator. We measured social capital by associational membership, civic participation, generalized trust, and neighborhood trust indicators at both individual and country levels. Income... (More)

Latin America is the most unequal region in the world. The current sustainable development agenda increased attention to health inequity and its determinants in the region. Our aim is to investigate the social gradient in health in Latin America and assess the effects of social capital and income inequality on it. We used cross-sectional data from the World Values Survey and the World Bank. Our sample included 10,426 respondents in eight Latin American countries. Self-rated health was used as the outcome. Education level was the socioeconomic position indicator. We measured social capital by associational membership, civic participation, generalized trust, and neighborhood trust indicators at both individual and country levels. Income inequality was operationalized using the Gini index at country-level. We employed fixed effects logistic regressions and cross-level interactions to assess the impact of social capital and income inequality on the heath gradient, controlling for country heterogeneity. Education level was independently associated with self-rated health, representing a clear social gradient in health, favoring individuals in higher socioeconomic positions. Generalized and neighborhood trust at country-level moderated the effect on the association between socioeconomic position and health, yet favoring individuals in lower socioeconomic positions, especially in lower inequality countries, despite their lower individual social capital. Our findings suggest that collective rather than individual social capital can impact the social gradient in health in Latin America, explaining health inequalities.

(Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Cross-level interactions, Fixed-effects, Health disparities, Income inequality, Latin America, Self-rated health, Social capital
in
Social Science and Medicine
volume
196
pages
8 pages
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • scopus:85034633847
ISSN
0277-9536
DOI
10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.11.025
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
59ec7a72-d18b-4cf8-8dc3-2a0752245fe8
date added to LUP
2017-12-07 12:12:54
date last changed
2018-01-07 12:27:30
@article{59ec7a72-d18b-4cf8-8dc3-2a0752245fe8,
  abstract     = {<p>Latin America is the most unequal region in the world. The current sustainable development agenda increased attention to health inequity and its determinants in the region. Our aim is to investigate the social gradient in health in Latin America and assess the effects of social capital and income inequality on it. We used cross-sectional data from the World Values Survey and the World Bank. Our sample included 10,426 respondents in eight Latin American countries. Self-rated health was used as the outcome. Education level was the socioeconomic position indicator. We measured social capital by associational membership, civic participation, generalized trust, and neighborhood trust indicators at both individual and country levels. Income inequality was operationalized using the Gini index at country-level. We employed fixed effects logistic regressions and cross-level interactions to assess the impact of social capital and income inequality on the heath gradient, controlling for country heterogeneity. Education level was independently associated with self-rated health, representing a clear social gradient in health, favoring individuals in higher socioeconomic positions. Generalized and neighborhood trust at country-level moderated the effect on the association between socioeconomic position and health, yet favoring individuals in lower socioeconomic positions, especially in lower inequality countries, despite their lower individual social capital. Our findings suggest that collective rather than individual social capital can impact the social gradient in health in Latin America, explaining health inequalities.</p>},
  author       = {Vincens, Natalia and Emmelin, Maria and Stafström, Martin},
  issn         = {0277-9536},
  keyword      = {Cross-level interactions,Fixed-effects,Health disparities,Income inequality,Latin America,Self-rated health,Social capital},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {01},
  pages        = {115--122},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Social Science and Medicine},
  title        = {Social capital, income inequality and the social gradient in self-rated health in Latin America : A fixed effects analysis},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.11.025},
  volume       = {196},
  year         = {2018},
}