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Prediagnostic serum polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and primary liver cancer : A case-control study nested within two prospective cohorts

Niehoff, Nicole M. ; Zabor, Emily C. ; Satagopan, Jaya ; Widell, Anders LU ; O'Brien, Thomas R. ; Zhang, Mingdong ; Rothman, Nathaniel ; Grimsrud, Tom K. ; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K. and Engel, Lawrence S. (2020) In Environmental Research 187.
Abstract

Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in electrical equipment and a range of construction materials. Although banned in the United States and most of Europe in the 1970s, they are highly persistent in the environment and bioaccumulate. Whether PCBs are associated with liver cancer risk at general population levels is unknown. Methods: This study consisted of 136 incident liver cancer cases and 408 matched controls from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Multiphasic Health Checkup (MHC) cohort and 84 cases and 252 matched controls from the Norwegian Janus cohort. Sera collected in the 1960s–1980s were measured for 37 PCB congeners and markers of hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infection. Odds ratios (OR) and 95%... (More)

Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in electrical equipment and a range of construction materials. Although banned in the United States and most of Europe in the 1970s, they are highly persistent in the environment and bioaccumulate. Whether PCBs are associated with liver cancer risk at general population levels is unknown. Methods: This study consisted of 136 incident liver cancer cases and 408 matched controls from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Multiphasic Health Checkup (MHC) cohort and 84 cases and 252 matched controls from the Norwegian Janus cohort. Sera collected in the 1960s–1980s were measured for 37 PCB congeners and markers of hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infection. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for tertiles of each lipid-adjusted PCB were estimated from conditional logistic regression. We also examined the molar sum of congeners in groups: total PCBs; low, medium, and high chlorination; and Wolff functional groups. Results: Concentrations of individual congeners from the 1960s/1970s sera ranged from 1.3-123.0 and 1.4–116.0 ng/g lipid among MHC cases and controls, respectively, and from 1.9-258.0 and 1.9–271.0 ng/g lipid among Janus cases and controls, respectively. Among MHC participants with sera from the 1960s, collected an average of 27 years before diagnosis among cases, the top tertile of PCBs 151, 170, 172, 177, 178, 180, and 195 was significantly associated with elevated odds of liver cancer (OR range = 2.01–2.38); most of these congeners demonstrated exposure-response trends. For example, ORtertile 3vs1 = 2.38 (95% CI: 1.22–4.64, p-trend = 0.01) for PCB 180. As a group, Wolff group 1b congeners, which are biologically persistent and weak phenobarbital inducers, were associated with increased odds. In MHC participants, ever vs. never HBV or HCV infection modified the PCB-liver cancer associations. There was little evidence of an association between PCBs and odds of liver cancer among the Janus cohort. Discussion: We observed associations between a number of PCB congeners and increased odds of liver cancer among MHC, but not Janus, participants with sera from the 1960s/1970s.

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author
organization
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type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Hepatitis B and C, Liver cancer, PCBs, Persistent exposure, Polychlorinated biphenyls
in
Environmental Research
volume
187
article number
109690
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • pmid:32474310
  • scopus:85085489335
ISSN
0013-9351
DOI
10.1016/j.envres.2020.109690
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
5e2451ab-f5c3-475e-b25c-7a5526d0d036
date added to LUP
2020-06-11 12:09:48
date last changed
2020-06-12 02:27:05
@article{5e2451ab-f5c3-475e-b25c-7a5526d0d036,
  abstract     = {<p>Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in electrical equipment and a range of construction materials. Although banned in the United States and most of Europe in the 1970s, they are highly persistent in the environment and bioaccumulate. Whether PCBs are associated with liver cancer risk at general population levels is unknown. Methods: This study consisted of 136 incident liver cancer cases and 408 matched controls from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Multiphasic Health Checkup (MHC) cohort and 84 cases and 252 matched controls from the Norwegian Janus cohort. Sera collected in the 1960s–1980s were measured for 37 PCB congeners and markers of hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infection. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for tertiles of each lipid-adjusted PCB were estimated from conditional logistic regression. We also examined the molar sum of congeners in groups: total PCBs; low, medium, and high chlorination; and Wolff functional groups. Results: Concentrations of individual congeners from the 1960s/1970s sera ranged from 1.3-123.0 and 1.4–116.0 ng/g lipid among MHC cases and controls, respectively, and from 1.9-258.0 and 1.9–271.0 ng/g lipid among Janus cases and controls, respectively. Among MHC participants with sera from the 1960s, collected an average of 27 years before diagnosis among cases, the top tertile of PCBs 151, 170, 172, 177, 178, 180, and 195 was significantly associated with elevated odds of liver cancer (OR range = 2.01–2.38); most of these congeners demonstrated exposure-response trends. For example, OR<sub>tertile 3vs1</sub> = 2.38 (95% CI: 1.22–4.64, p-trend = 0.01) for PCB 180. As a group, Wolff group 1b congeners, which are biologically persistent and weak phenobarbital inducers, were associated with increased odds. In MHC participants, ever vs. never HBV or HCV infection modified the PCB-liver cancer associations. There was little evidence of an association between PCBs and odds of liver cancer among the Janus cohort. Discussion: We observed associations between a number of PCB congeners and increased odds of liver cancer among MHC, but not Janus, participants with sera from the 1960s/1970s.</p>},
  author       = {Niehoff, Nicole M. and Zabor, Emily C. and Satagopan, Jaya and Widell, Anders and O'Brien, Thomas R. and Zhang, Mingdong and Rothman, Nathaniel and Grimsrud, Tom K. and Van Den Eeden, Stephen K. and Engel, Lawrence S.},
  issn         = {0013-9351},
  language     = {eng},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Environmental Research},
  title        = {Prediagnostic serum polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and primary liver cancer : A case-control study nested within two prospective cohorts},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109690},
  doi          = {10.1016/j.envres.2020.109690},
  volume       = {187},
  year         = {2020},
}