Advanced

Arbete i kyla vid mjölkproduktionsanläggningar: Kartläggning och studie av termiska arbetsmiljöproblem

Gavhed, Désirée; Fredriksson, Klas; Kuklane, Kalev LU ; Holmér, Ingvar LU and Norén, Olle (2002) In JTI Lantbruk & Industri 290.
Abstract (Swedish)
Målet med projektet var att analysera problem med arbete i kyla i mjölkproduktionsanläggningar vad gäller förekomst, frekvens och skaderisk samt att föreslå åtgärder för förbättringar.

Projektet bestod av två delar:

Del 1. En fältstudie, som genomfördes dels i Uppsalatrakten, dels i Västerbottens län.

Del 2. En enkätstudie, riktad till Lantbrukshälsans medlemmar i norra regionen.

Fältstudierna omfattade 7 anläggningar i Uppsalaområdet och 6 anläggningar i

Västerbotten. Av anläggningarna i Uppsalaområdet hade fyra kall lösdrift, en varm

lösdrift och två uppbundna kor. I Västerbotten hade fem kall lösdrift och en varm

lösdrift. Totalt studerades

20 personer under... (More)
Målet med projektet var att analysera problem med arbete i kyla i mjölkproduktionsanläggningar vad gäller förekomst, frekvens och skaderisk samt att föreslå åtgärder för förbättringar.

Projektet bestod av två delar:

Del 1. En fältstudie, som genomfördes dels i Uppsalatrakten, dels i Västerbottens län.

Del 2. En enkätstudie, riktad till Lantbrukshälsans medlemmar i norra regionen.

Fältstudierna omfattade 7 anläggningar i Uppsalaområdet och 6 anläggningar i

Västerbotten. Av anläggningarna i Uppsalaområdet hade fyra kall lösdrift, en varm

lösdrift och två uppbundna kor. I Västerbotten hade fem kall lösdrift och en varm

lösdrift. Totalt studerades

20 personer under mjölkningsarbete och djurskötsel. Flertalet av dem var egna

lantbrukare respektive familjemedlemmar.

Vid fältstudierna gjordes både fysiologiska och fysikaliska mätningar. Dessutom

gjordes observationer av arbetet så att olika data kan kopplas samman med

arbetsmomenten.

De fysiologiska mätningarna omfattade hudtemperatur på olika delar av kroppen

och hjärtfrekvens. Vidare vägdes försökspersonerna och deras kläder före och efter

studien för att man skulle få någon uppfattning om svettning etc. De fysikaliska

mätningarna gällde luft- och yttemperatur samt lufthastighet i de utrymmen där

arbete utfördes samt utomhus. I Västerbotten studerades arbetstyngden genom

mätning av syreförbrukningen.

Frågeformulär utsändes till ca 140 mjölkproducenter i Norrbotten och Västerbotten

anslutna till Hälsa Sverige, med förfrågningar om eventuella svårigheter och besvär

som kan hänföras till kyla. Flera av frågorna gällde en uppskattning av hur kylan

inverkade

på arbetet. Många frågor gällde också klädseln inklusive handskar och

fotbeklädnad.

Som väntat visade det sig att kylan kan medföra stora påfrestningar på personalen

vid arbete i de studerade mjölkproduktionsanläggningarna vid kallt (respektive

mycket kallt) väder. Problem med kyla bör dock ses i ett större sammanhang.

Lantbrukare som arbetar med mjölkproduktion är utsatta för flera fysiska och

psykiska faktorer i arbetsmiljön, såsom väta, organiskt damm, belastningsbesvär

och stress. Vintertid kan kylan utgöra

ett problem som adderas till de övriga och som därmed ökar belastningen på

individen.

Klimatet i mjölkgropen kännetecknades av låg lufttemperatur, som var lägst vid

golvet, fukt, ofta drag och låga yttemperaturer. Händer och fingrar blev ofta kalla

vid mjölkning. Händerna var ofta bara 20-25 °C. Fingertemperaturen blev särskilt

låg vid mjölkning. I flera fall var den under 16 °C nästan hela arbetspasset. Fingertemperaturer

ända ner till

6 °C respektive 9 °C uppmättes vid slutet av mjölkningen i mjölkgrop med varm

respektive kall samlingsfålla.

Fot- och tåtemperaturerna minskade i många fall till oacceptabelt låg nivå. Som

anledning till att fötterna blev kalla angavs oftast problem med skyddsskor. Detta

problem hade sannolikt samband med att ofodrade gummistövlar använts i stor

omfattning när man arbetar i våt miljö. Det näst vanligaste problemet var svettiga

eller våta fötter.

Ett viktigt sätt att skydda sig mot kyla är att använda ändamålsenliga kläder.

Kläder av bomull, som suger åt sig fukt och väta lätt, användes av många. Ytterst

är ett material

med vattenavvisande egenskaper ett bättre alternativ i kall och våt omgivning.

Bomull

är inte heller lämpligt närmast kroppen vid arbete som innebär svettning. Fukten

från kroppen sugs upp i bomullen och stannar kvar vid huden. Det ger obehag och

känns

kallt då tyngre arbete med svettning övergår till ett lugnare tempo. Det finns många

syntetiska material i handeln som inte absorberar fukt. Fukten från huden kan i ett

plagg av sådant material röra sig bort från huden och vidare ut till andra klädlager.

Kroppen känns då både behagligare och varmare.

Både enkätsvar och observationer tydde på att kylan upplevdes som ett mindre

problem i gårdar med kall lösdrift, trots att många av gårdarna som ingick i

undersökningen låg i norra Sverige, som har låga vintertemperaturer. Vid kall

lösdrift anpassas sannolikt arbetet och skyddet mot kyla till låga temperaturer och

temperaturväxlingarna blir färre, vilket leder till mindre obehag av åtminstone

den anledningen. Den större erfarenheten av arbete i kyla gör förmodligen att

lantbrukarna organiserar sitt arbete på ett sätt som minimerar problemen med

kyla. Arbetet på gårdar med uppbundna djur innebär många växlingar mellan

inomhus- och utomhustemperatur. Just temperaturväxlingar angavs vara en vanlig

orsak till obehag.

Baserat på resultaten från undersökningen har rekommendationer utarbetats. Det

gäller en lång rad åtgärder för att motverka kalla händer och fötter, drag m.m.

samt hur man bör klä sig. (Less)
Abstract
The aim of the project was to analyse problems with cold when working in dairyfarms

with respect to prevalence, frequency and risk for injuries and to propose

measures for improvements of thermal conditions.

The project comprised two parts: a field study and a questionnaire survey.

The field studies were performed at seven dairy-farms in the Uppsala region and

six dairy-farms in the northern region of Sweden (Västerbotten). Four of the farms

in the Uppsala region were non-insulated loose housing barns, one was an insulated

loose housing barn and two had traditional barns with tie stall. In Västerbotten, five

of the

farms were non-insulated loose housing barns... (More)
The aim of the project was to analyse problems with cold when working in dairyfarms

with respect to prevalence, frequency and risk for injuries and to propose

measures for improvements of thermal conditions.

The project comprised two parts: a field study and a questionnaire survey.

The field studies were performed at seven dairy-farms in the Uppsala region and

six dairy-farms in the northern region of Sweden (Västerbotten). Four of the farms

in the Uppsala region were non-insulated loose housing barns, one was an insulated

loose housing barn and two had traditional barns with tie stall. In Västerbotten, five

of the

farms were non-insulated loose housing barns and one was an insulated loose

housing barn. In total, 20 farmers were studied during milking and animal feeding

and maintenance. The majority of the studied farmers were owners of the farm and

family members.

During the field study, both physiological and physical measurements were performed.

In addition, a detailed observation of the work, which enabled linking of

measured data and the work tasks that were carried out. The physiological measurements

included

skin temperature of different body parts and heart rate. All subjects and their

clothes were weighed before and after work in order to estimate sweating and

evaporation. Further, the energetic workload was measured at the farms in

Västerbotten. The physical measurements concerned air and surface temperature

and air velocity in the buildings where work was performed as well as outdoors.

A questionnaire was sent to 140 dairy-farms in the northern part of Sweden. The

questions concerned problems and discomfort that may be related to cold, for

example, how cold affected the work, problems with clothing, gloves and footwear.

As was expected, the study showed that cold might cause considerable stress for

dairy-farmers during cold weather. However, problems with cold should be

viewed in a larger context. Workers in dairy-farms are exposed to several physical

and physiological stressors in the work environment, such as moisture, organic

dust, musculoskeletal stress and mental stress. During winter, cold adds to these

stressors, which increases

the environmental load on the individual.

The typical climate in the raised milking parlours was as follows: low air temperature,

which was lowest at foot level, high humidity, moisture, frequent draught and

low surface temperatures. Hands and fingers often became cold during milking.

The hands were

often 20-25 °C. Especially the finger temperatures dropped to low levels during

milking. In many cases it was below 16 °C for almost the whole spell of work.

Finger temperatures down to 6 °C were observed at the end of the milking period in

milking parlours with a non-insulated holding area, and 9 °C in milking parlours

with an insulated holding area.

In many cases, foot and toe temperatures dropped to unacceptably low levels. The

reasons for cold feet were reported to be the result of inadequate footwear. This

problem was probably related to the fact that rubber boots without an insulation

layer were very common among the farmers. The second most common problem

was sweaty or wet feet.

An important way to be protected from cold is to use adequate clothing. Cotton,

which absorbs moisture and water well, was a very common material in the garments

worn

by the farmers. For the outer layer of the clothing, a water-repellent material is a

better alternative in cold-wet environments. At heavy work, which results in

sweating, cotton

is not the most appropriate material to wear close to the skin. Sweat is absorbed

by the cotton and thus stays at the skin. This leads to discomfort and feels cold

when heavy work changes to light work, or when the worker moves outdoors.

Many commercial non-absorbing materials, which may contribute to better

thermal comfort, are available. When using underwear made of such materials,

the moisture is transported away from the skin to other clothing layers.

Both the survey results and the observations indicated that cold was experienced as

a minor problem in farms with non-insulated loose housing barns even though

most of the participating farms were situated in one of the coldest regions of

Sweden. In non-insulated loose housing barns, the work and the protection from

cold is most likely adjusted to

the cold climate, and temperature changes may lead to less discomfort, at least, for

that reason. Greater experience of work in cold conditions probably contributes to a

work organisation that minimises cold problems. In traditional barns, temperature

changes between buildings and outdoors are common and were considered a major

cause for thermal discomfort.

Based on the results from this study, recommendations have been worked out.

They provide a long list of interventions to prevent cold hands and feet, advice

about clothing and other measures for improvements of the thermal conditions. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
alternative title
Work in dairy-farms during the cold season: Survey and field study of the thermal environment
publishing date
type
Book/Report
publication status
published
subject
in
JTI Lantbruk & Industri
volume
290
pages
90 pages
publisher
JTI
ISSN
1401-4963
language
Swedish
LU publication?
no
id
3ac4df15-36c6-47d7-a5da-9a68ee50a4fb (old id 631702)
alternative location
http://www.jti.se/uploads/jti/r290on.pdf
date added to LUP
2007-12-04 10:27:20
date last changed
2016-04-16 05:07:44
@techreport{3ac4df15-36c6-47d7-a5da-9a68ee50a4fb,
  abstract     = {The aim of the project was to analyse problems with cold when working in dairyfarms<br/><br>
with respect to prevalence, frequency and risk for injuries and to propose<br/><br>
measures for improvements of thermal conditions.<br/><br>
The project comprised two parts: a field study and a questionnaire survey.<br/><br>
The field studies were performed at seven dairy-farms in the Uppsala region and<br/><br>
six dairy-farms in the northern region of Sweden (Västerbotten). Four of the farms<br/><br>
in the Uppsala region were non-insulated loose housing barns, one was an insulated<br/><br>
loose housing barn and two had traditional barns with tie stall. In Västerbotten, five<br/><br>
of the<br/><br>
farms were non-insulated loose housing barns and one was an insulated loose<br/><br>
housing barn. In total, 20 farmers were studied during milking and animal feeding<br/><br>
and maintenance. The majority of the studied farmers were owners of the farm and<br/><br>
family members.<br/><br>
During the field study, both physiological and physical measurements were performed.<br/><br>
In addition, a detailed observation of the work, which enabled linking of<br/><br>
measured data and the work tasks that were carried out. The physiological measurements<br/><br>
included<br/><br>
skin temperature of different body parts and heart rate. All subjects and their<br/><br>
clothes were weighed before and after work in order to estimate sweating and<br/><br>
evaporation. Further, the energetic workload was measured at the farms in<br/><br>
Västerbotten. The physical measurements concerned air and surface temperature<br/><br>
and air velocity in the buildings where work was performed as well as outdoors.<br/><br>
A questionnaire was sent to 140 dairy-farms in the northern part of Sweden. The<br/><br>
questions concerned problems and discomfort that may be related to cold, for<br/><br>
example, how cold affected the work, problems with clothing, gloves and footwear.<br/><br>
As was expected, the study showed that cold might cause considerable stress for<br/><br>
dairy-farmers during cold weather. However, problems with cold should be<br/><br>
viewed in a larger context. Workers in dairy-farms are exposed to several physical<br/><br>
and physiological stressors in the work environment, such as moisture, organic<br/><br>
dust, musculoskeletal stress and mental stress. During winter, cold adds to these<br/><br>
stressors, which increases<br/><br>
the environmental load on the individual.<br/><br>
The typical climate in the raised milking parlours was as follows: low air temperature,<br/><br>
which was lowest at foot level, high humidity, moisture, frequent draught and<br/><br>
low surface temperatures. Hands and fingers often became cold during milking.<br/><br>
The hands were<br/><br>
often 20-25 °C. Especially the finger temperatures dropped to low levels during<br/><br>
milking. In many cases it was below 16 °C for almost the whole spell of work.<br/><br>
Finger temperatures down to 6 °C were observed at the end of the milking period in<br/><br>
milking parlours with a non-insulated holding area, and 9 °C in milking parlours<br/><br>
with an insulated holding area.<br/><br>
In many cases, foot and toe temperatures dropped to unacceptably low levels. The<br/><br>
reasons for cold feet were reported to be the result of inadequate footwear. This<br/><br>
problem was probably related to the fact that rubber boots without an insulation<br/><br>
layer were very common among the farmers. The second most common problem<br/><br>
was sweaty or wet feet.<br/><br>
An important way to be protected from cold is to use adequate clothing. Cotton,<br/><br>
which absorbs moisture and water well, was a very common material in the garments<br/><br>
worn<br/><br>
by the farmers. For the outer layer of the clothing, a water-repellent material is a<br/><br>
better alternative in cold-wet environments. At heavy work, which results in<br/><br>
sweating, cotton<br/><br>
is not the most appropriate material to wear close to the skin. Sweat is absorbed<br/><br>
by the cotton and thus stays at the skin. This leads to discomfort and feels cold<br/><br>
when heavy work changes to light work, or when the worker moves outdoors.<br/><br>
Many commercial non-absorbing materials, which may contribute to better<br/><br>
thermal comfort, are available. When using underwear made of such materials,<br/><br>
the moisture is transported away from the skin to other clothing layers.<br/><br>
Both the survey results and the observations indicated that cold was experienced as<br/><br>
a minor problem in farms with non-insulated loose housing barns even though<br/><br>
most of the participating farms were situated in one of the coldest regions of<br/><br>
Sweden. In non-insulated loose housing barns, the work and the protection from<br/><br>
cold is most likely adjusted to<br/><br>
the cold climate, and temperature changes may lead to less discomfort, at least, for<br/><br>
that reason. Greater experience of work in cold conditions probably contributes to a<br/><br>
work organisation that minimises cold problems. In traditional barns, temperature<br/><br>
changes between buildings and outdoors are common and were considered a major<br/><br>
cause for thermal discomfort.<br/><br>
Based on the results from this study, recommendations have been worked out.<br/><br>
They provide a long list of interventions to prevent cold hands and feet, advice<br/><br>
about clothing and other measures for improvements of the thermal conditions.},
  author       = {Gavhed, Désirée and Fredriksson, Klas and Kuklane, Kalev and Holmér, Ingvar and Norén, Olle},
  institution  = {JTI},
  issn         = {1401-4963},
  language     = {swe},
  pages        = {90},
  series       = {JTI Lantbruk & Industri},
  title        = {Arbete i kyla vid mjölkproduktionsanläggningar: Kartläggning och studie av termiska arbetsmiljöproblem},
  volume       = {290},
  year         = {2002},
}