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Interlaboratory tests on thermal foot models

Kuklane, Kalev LU ; Holmér, Ingvar LU ; Anttonen, Hannu; Burke, Richard; Doughty, Peter; Endrusick, Thomas; Hellsten, Mari; Shen, Yuhong and Uedelhoven, Wolfgang (2003) In EAT report 2003:01.
Abstract (Swedish)
Jämförande mätningar med olika typer av fotmodeller har genomförts. Åtta olika

laboratorier deltog. Storleken på de olika modellerna motsvarade skostorlekar från 41

till 44. Sex andra laboratorier var intresserade att deltaga men kunde inte genomföra

mätningar vid tillfället. En databas skapades som gör det möjligt att fortlöpande tillföra

resultat från mätningar med typer av andra skodon samt vid andra laboratorier.

Mätserien utfördes enligt standardiserade betingelser vid varje laboratorium. 10

betingelser rekommenderades. Alla betingelser skulle testas 2 gånger. Tester med naken

fot och med socka gjordes vid ca +20 °C och 50 % relativ fuktighet (RF). En tunn

... (More)
Jämförande mätningar med olika typer av fotmodeller har genomförts. Åtta olika

laboratorier deltog. Storleken på de olika modellerna motsvarade skostorlekar från 41

till 44. Sex andra laboratorier var intresserade att deltaga men kunde inte genomföra

mätningar vid tillfället. En databas skapades som gör det möjligt att fortlöpande tillföra

resultat från mätningar med typer av andra skodon samt vid andra laboratorier.

Mätserien utfördes enligt standardiserade betingelser vid varje laboratorium. 10

betingelser rekommenderades. Alla betingelser skulle testas 2 gånger. Tester med naken

fot och med socka gjordes vid ca +20 °C och 50 % relativ fuktighet (RF). En tunn

gummistövel och en vinter stövel testades vid ca +5 °C och 85 % RF. Stövlar och

sockor konditionerades vid 20±2 °C och 35±5 % RF innan testningen. Lufthastighet

hölls vid låg nivå (<0.3 m/s). Våta tester inkluderade simulering av svettning med

tillförsel av vatten till fotytan med 5 g/timme/foot. Vanligen testades 6 betingelser vid

deltagande laboratorier. Studien kan användas som grund för att designa ett nytt projekt

med målet att ta fram underlag för förslag till ändringar av nyvarande europeisk

standard (EN 344) alternativt föreslå en ny (internationell) standard för testning av

termiska egenskaper hos skyddsskor mot kyla och värme.

Relativt stora skillnader förelåg i mätresultat från de olika laboratorierna. Skillnaden var

mindre i isolationsvärden för hela stöveln medan skillnaden överskred 30 % på lokala

zoner. Skillnaderna kan förklaras bland annat med olika klimatbetingelser, fotens

konstruktion och mätprincip. Mer jämförande tester under olika betingelser samt på

olika skodon behöver utföras. Påverkan av modellkonstruktion osv. måste analyseras

vidare. För definition av ett standardtest måste bestämmas vilka zoner som ska ingå i

beräkningen av hela skons isolation och vilka zoner som ska rapporteras separat, t.ex.

sulan. Fotens form och antalet zoner, testbetingelser, mätningar och beräkningar i

samband med våta tester behöver bestämmas i det nya projektet. (Less)
Abstract
A limited Round Robin test has been carried out with different types of foot models.

Eight laboratories were able to carry out tests. The foot models varied in sizes from 254

mm to 275 mm, representing boot sizes from 41 to 44. Six other laboratories were

interested but were not able to carry out the tests within this study. A database has been

created. New test results from other test laboratories and on other footwear can be added

later on. The test series were carried out under standardised conditions in each

laboratory. Ten (10) test conditions were recommended. All conditions had to be tested

twice. Tests with bare foot and sock were carried out at about +20 °C and 50 %... (More)
A limited Round Robin test has been carried out with different types of foot models.

Eight laboratories were able to carry out tests. The foot models varied in sizes from 254

mm to 275 mm, representing boot sizes from 41 to 44. Six other laboratories were

interested but were not able to carry out the tests within this study. A database has been

created. New test results from other test laboratories and on other footwear can be added

later on. The test series were carried out under standardised conditions in each

laboratory. Ten (10) test conditions were recommended. All conditions had to be tested

twice. Tests with bare foot and sock were carried out at about +20 °C and 50 % RH.

The boots, a thin rubber and a winter boot, were tested at about +5 °C and 85 % RH.

The conditioning was done at 20±2 °C and 35±5 % RH. Air velocity was kept low (<0.3

m/s). Wet tests included simulation of sweating by supplying water to the foot skin at a

rate of 5 g/h/foot. Generally, 6 conditions were tested at most laboratories. The test

series can be used as a basis for applying for a project further on that eventually would

aim to suggest changes in existing European standard (EN 344) or propose a new

(international) standard on footwear thermal testing.

Relatively big inter-laboratory differences in measuring results were obtained. The

differences were smaller for total insulation values but could be more than 30 % for

local zones. Most of the differences would be explained by climatic conditions,

construction of foot, measuring principle a.o. More elaborate comparative tests under

different conditions and with more types of footwear need to be done. The effects of

differences in model construction etc. should be analysed further. For standard use it is

important to determine which zones should be included in the total insulation

calculation and which zones should be reported separately, e.g. sole area. The foot

construction, the conditions, measurements and calculations for wet tests should be

more clearly defined. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Book/Report
publication status
published
subject
keywords
sweating simulation, footwear, standard test method, moisture absorption, moisture transport, insulation, cold protection, thermal foot model
in
EAT report
volume
2003:01
pages
19 pages
publisher
Lund University
external identifiers
  • other:ISRN LUTMDN/TMAT-3019-SE
ISSN
1650-9773
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
44027c83-fb22-4205-be4d-a8246a08bf4c (old id 631717)
date added to LUP
2008-05-20 14:17:51
date last changed
2016-07-06 17:35:46
@techreport{44027c83-fb22-4205-be4d-a8246a08bf4c,
  abstract     = {A limited Round Robin test has been carried out with different types of foot models.<br/><br>
Eight laboratories were able to carry out tests. The foot models varied in sizes from 254<br/><br>
mm to 275 mm, representing boot sizes from 41 to 44. Six other laboratories were<br/><br>
interested but were not able to carry out the tests within this study. A database has been<br/><br>
created. New test results from other test laboratories and on other footwear can be added<br/><br>
later on. The test series were carried out under standardised conditions in each<br/><br>
laboratory. Ten (10) test conditions were recommended. All conditions had to be tested<br/><br>
twice. Tests with bare foot and sock were carried out at about +20 °C and 50 % RH.<br/><br>
The boots, a thin rubber and a winter boot, were tested at about +5 °C and 85 % RH.<br/><br>
The conditioning was done at 20±2 °C and 35±5 % RH. Air velocity was kept low (&lt;0.3<br/><br>
m/s). Wet tests included simulation of sweating by supplying water to the foot skin at a<br/><br>
rate of 5 g/h/foot. Generally, 6 conditions were tested at most laboratories. The test<br/><br>
series can be used as a basis for applying for a project further on that eventually would<br/><br>
aim to suggest changes in existing European standard (EN 344) or propose a new<br/><br>
(international) standard on footwear thermal testing.<br/><br>
Relatively big inter-laboratory differences in measuring results were obtained. The<br/><br>
differences were smaller for total insulation values but could be more than 30 % for<br/><br>
local zones. Most of the differences would be explained by climatic conditions,<br/><br>
construction of foot, measuring principle a.o. More elaborate comparative tests under<br/><br>
different conditions and with more types of footwear need to be done. The effects of<br/><br>
differences in model construction etc. should be analysed further. For standard use it is<br/><br>
important to determine which zones should be included in the total insulation<br/><br>
calculation and which zones should be reported separately, e.g. sole area. The foot<br/><br>
construction, the conditions, measurements and calculations for wet tests should be<br/><br>
more clearly defined.},
  author       = {Kuklane, Kalev and Holmér, Ingvar and Anttonen, Hannu and Burke, Richard and Doughty, Peter and Endrusick, Thomas and Hellsten, Mari and Shen, Yuhong and Uedelhoven, Wolfgang},
  institution  = {Lund University},
  issn         = {1650-9773},
  keyword      = {sweating simulation,footwear,standard test method,moisture absorption,moisture transport,insulation,cold protection,thermal foot model},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {19},
  series       = {EAT report},
  title        = {Interlaboratory tests on thermal foot models},
  volume       = {2003:01},
  year         = {2003},
}