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Detection of central nervous system involvement in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia by cytomorphology and flow cytometry of the cerebrospinal fluid

Ranta, Susanna ; Nilsson, Frans ; Harila-Saari, Arja ; Saft, Leonie ; Tani, Edneia ; Söderhäll, Stefan ; Porwit, Anna LU ; Hultdin, Magnus ; Noren-Nyström, Ulrika and Heyman, Mats (2015) In Pediatric Blood and Cancer 62(6). p.951-956
Abstract

Background: Therapy directed at the central nervous system (CNS) is an essential part of the treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The current evaluation of CNS involvement based on cytomorphological examination of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alone is not as sensitive with low cell counts as flow cytometric immunophenotyping (FCI) of the CSF. However, the importance of low CSF blasts counts at diagnosis is uncertain. We sought to determine the significance of FCI in relation to conventional morphological examination. Procedure: We retrospectively compared FCI of the CSF with cytomorphology at diagnosis or relapse of childhood ALL. All patients were diagnosed 2000-2012 in Stockholm or Umeå, Sweden. Clinical data... (More)

Background: Therapy directed at the central nervous system (CNS) is an essential part of the treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The current evaluation of CNS involvement based on cytomorphological examination of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alone is not as sensitive with low cell counts as flow cytometric immunophenotyping (FCI) of the CSF. However, the importance of low CSF blasts counts at diagnosis is uncertain. We sought to determine the significance of FCI in relation to conventional morphological examination. Procedure: We retrospectively compared FCI of the CSF with cytomorphology at diagnosis or relapse of childhood ALL. All patients were diagnosed 2000-2012 in Stockholm or Umeå, Sweden. Clinical data were collected from medical records and the Nordic leukemia registry. Treatment assignment was based on morphological examination only. Results: The cohort was comprised of 214 patients with ALL. CSF involvement was detected by both methods in 20 patients, in 17 by FCI alone, and in one patient by cytomorphology alone. The relapse rate was higher for patients with negative cytology but positive FCI compared to those without CNS involvement using both methods. The difference was especially marked in the current protocol. However, none of the patients with negative CSF cytology but positive FCI had a CNS relapse. Conclusions: FCI of the CSF increased the detection rate of CNS involvement of ALL approximately two times compared to cytomorphology. Patients with low-level CNS involvement may benefit from additional intensified systemic or CNS-directed therapy, but larger studies are needed. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015;62:951-956.

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author
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Cerebrospinal fluid, Cytology, Flow cytometric immunophenotyping, Leukemia
in
Pediatric Blood and Cancer
volume
62
issue
6
pages
951 - 956
publisher
John Wiley and Sons Inc.
external identifiers
  • pmid:25545289
  • scopus:84927794506
ISSN
1545-5009
DOI
10.1002/pbc.25363
language
English
LU publication?
no
id
6317ac19-3302-4ce9-b421-21f31c23bf18
date added to LUP
2019-05-22 09:45:22
date last changed
2019-11-25 09:30:28
@article{6317ac19-3302-4ce9-b421-21f31c23bf18,
  abstract     = {<p>Background: Therapy directed at the central nervous system (CNS) is an essential part of the treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The current evaluation of CNS involvement based on cytomorphological examination of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alone is not as sensitive with low cell counts as flow cytometric immunophenotyping (FCI) of the CSF. However, the importance of low CSF blasts counts at diagnosis is uncertain. We sought to determine the significance of FCI in relation to conventional morphological examination. Procedure: We retrospectively compared FCI of the CSF with cytomorphology at diagnosis or relapse of childhood ALL. All patients were diagnosed 2000-2012 in Stockholm or Umeå, Sweden. Clinical data were collected from medical records and the Nordic leukemia registry. Treatment assignment was based on morphological examination only. Results: The cohort was comprised of 214 patients with ALL. CSF involvement was detected by both methods in 20 patients, in 17 by FCI alone, and in one patient by cytomorphology alone. The relapse rate was higher for patients with negative cytology but positive FCI compared to those without CNS involvement using both methods. The difference was especially marked in the current protocol. However, none of the patients with negative CSF cytology but positive FCI had a CNS relapse. Conclusions: FCI of the CSF increased the detection rate of CNS involvement of ALL approximately two times compared to cytomorphology. Patients with low-level CNS involvement may benefit from additional intensified systemic or CNS-directed therapy, but larger studies are needed. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015;62:951-956.</p>},
  author       = {Ranta, Susanna and Nilsson, Frans and Harila-Saari, Arja and Saft, Leonie and Tani, Edneia and Söderhäll, Stefan and Porwit, Anna and Hultdin, Magnus and Noren-Nyström, Ulrika and Heyman, Mats},
  issn         = {1545-5009},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {01},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {951--956},
  publisher    = {John Wiley and Sons Inc.},
  series       = {Pediatric Blood and Cancer},
  title        = {Detection of central nervous system involvement in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia by cytomorphology and flow cytometry of the cerebrospinal fluid},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.25363},
  doi          = {10.1002/pbc.25363},
  volume       = {62},
  year         = {2015},
}