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Membrane processes in bulk fermentation: From antibiotics to biofuels and biochemicals

Lipnizki, Frank LU orcid and Nilsson, Mattias LU (2011) International Congress on Membranes and Membrane Processes 2011
Abstract
1. Introduction
The end of the 20th century was marked by the start of the third and so far final wave of biotechnology, the so-called white biotechnology, aiming to substitute chemical processes based on C2/C3 chemistry of oil and gas by biotechnological processes. The standard conversion process in biotechnology is fermentation, which is used to produce a wide range of bulk products such as antibiotics, enzymes, bioethanol and organic acids. Cross-flow membrane processes were introduced for downstream processing of fermentation products in the 1970ies and since then became a standard unit of operation for the recovery and purification of fermentation products. This presentation will provide a brief overview on the current status of... (More)
1. Introduction
The end of the 20th century was marked by the start of the third and so far final wave of biotechnology, the so-called white biotechnology, aiming to substitute chemical processes based on C2/C3 chemistry of oil and gas by biotechnological processes. The standard conversion process in biotechnology is fermentation, which is used to produce a wide range of bulk products such as antibiotics, enzymes, bioethanol and organic acids. Cross-flow membrane processes were introduced for downstream processing of fermentation products in the 1970ies and since then became a standard unit of operation for the recovery and purification of fermentation products. This presentation will provide a brief overview on the current status of membrane processes in the bulk fermentation industry looking on the established applications such as antibiotics, enzymes and organic acids plus the latest trend in this industry - biorefineries. Details on the different processes and process conditions will be given.

2. Current status
The use of membrane processes in the production of bulk fermentation products such as antibiotics, enzymes and organic acids is widely established. At the front-end of the production, the combination of MF/UF with diafiltration can be used for separation of the active ingredients from the fermentation broth. After this separation, membrane processes such as UF, NF, and RO are used for concentration and purification of the active ingredients. An example of a production line for antibiotics with membrane opportunities is shown in Figure 1. [figure1]

3. Future biorefineries
Biorefineries are integrated biotech facilities aiming on full utilization of feedstock for the simultaneous production of e.g. food, biofuels and biochemicals. Examples are the integrated production of biofuels and/or biopolymers from sugar and/or cellulose-based feedstock as part of sugar factories or pulp mills. In all these new concepts, membranes can play a significant role as highly selective and low-energy separation processes. Depending on the raw material, the initial step is the pre-treatment and conversion of the raw material, e.g. wood biomass, to sugars. Based on this conversion the sugars might be at very low concentration. The diluted sugar stream can then be concentrated by RO and polished by MF/UF before the fermentation step. During the fermentation step, the biofuels/biochemicals are produced and continuously removed by membrane processes such as MF/UF/PV to prevent product inhibitions from stopping the fermentation process. Subsequently, membrane processes like MF, UF, NF, RO and PV can be used for concentration and polishing of the biofuels/biochemicals. In Figure 2, an overview of different membrane opportunities is given. [figure2]

4. Outlook
Overall, this paper shows that cross-flow membrane processes have established themselves in the bulk fermentation industry and further have a great potential in future biorefineries.
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publication status
published
subject
keywords
Membrane separation, Biofuels, Biochemicals, Enzymes, Antibiotics
conference name
International Congress on Membranes and Membrane Processes 2011
conference location
Amsterdam, Netherlands
conference dates
2011-07-23 - 2011-07-29
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
63553fd8-d575-43ae-94cc-2f54c3278fb0
date added to LUP
2018-10-18 03:25:58
date last changed
2019-03-08 02:29:51
@misc{63553fd8-d575-43ae-94cc-2f54c3278fb0,
  abstract     = {1. Introduction<br/>The end of the 20th century was marked by the start of the third and so far final wave of biotechnology, the so-called white biotechnology, aiming to substitute chemical processes based on C2/C3 chemistry of oil and gas by biotechnological processes. The standard conversion process in biotechnology is fermentation, which is used to produce a wide range of bulk products such as antibiotics, enzymes, bioethanol and organic acids. Cross-flow membrane processes were introduced for downstream processing of fermentation products in the 1970ies and since then became a standard unit of operation for the recovery and purification of fermentation products. This presentation will provide a brief overview on the current status of membrane processes in the bulk fermentation industry looking on the established applications such as antibiotics, enzymes and organic acids plus the latest trend in this industry - biorefineries. Details on the different processes and process conditions will be given. <br/><br/>2. Current status<br/>The use of membrane processes in the production of bulk fermentation products such as antibiotics, enzymes and organic acids is widely established. At the front-end of the production, the combination of MF/UF with diafiltration can be used for separation of the active ingredients from the fermentation broth. After this separation, membrane processes such as UF, NF, and RO are used for concentration and purification of the active ingredients. An example of a production line for antibiotics with membrane opportunities is shown in Figure 1. [figure1] <br/><br/>3. Future biorefineries<br/>Biorefineries are integrated biotech facilities aiming on full utilization of feedstock for the simultaneous production of e.g. food, biofuels and biochemicals. Examples are the integrated production of biofuels and/or biopolymers from sugar and/or cellulose-based feedstock as part of sugar factories or pulp mills. In all these new concepts, membranes can play a significant role as highly selective and low-energy separation processes. Depending on the raw material, the initial step is the pre-treatment and conversion of the raw material, e.g. wood biomass, to sugars. Based on this conversion the sugars might be at very low concentration. The diluted sugar stream can then be concentrated by RO and polished by MF/UF before the fermentation step. During the fermentation step, the biofuels/biochemicals are produced and continuously removed by membrane processes such as MF/UF/PV to prevent product inhibitions from stopping the fermentation process. Subsequently, membrane processes like MF, UF, NF, RO and PV can be used for concentration and polishing of the biofuels/biochemicals. In Figure 2, an overview of different membrane opportunities is given. [figure2]  <br/><br/>4. Outlook<br/>Overall, this paper shows that cross-flow membrane processes have established themselves in the bulk fermentation industry and further have a great potential in future biorefineries. <br/>},
  author       = {Lipnizki, Frank and Nilsson, Mattias},
  language     = {eng},
  title        = {Membrane processes in bulk fermentation: From antibiotics to biofuels and biochemicals},
  year         = {2011},
}