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Mastarbete i kyla

Gavhed, Désirée; Kuklane, Kalev LU and Holmér, Ingvar LU (1999) In Arbetslivsrapport 1999:22.
Abstract (Swedish)
En fältstudie på åtta mastarbetare utfördes under februari i Svealand och Norrland.

Mastarbetarnas aktiviteter observerades under en vanlig arbetsdag i masten och hudtemperaturen

på sju ställen på kroppen, kroppstemperatur och hjärtfrekvens registrerades

kontinuerligt. De fick också skatta sin temperaturupplevelse och ansträngningsgrad

flera gånger under dagen. Lufttemperaturen varierade mellan -13 och 3 °C och vindhastigheten

mellan 1 och 13 m/s. Arbetsuppgifterna bestod av underhåll, montering och

byte av utrustning på masterna. Arbetstyngden varierade mycket under dagen från

mycket lätt (stillastående) till mycket tungt (klättring med börda). Syreförbrukningen

... (More)
En fältstudie på åtta mastarbetare utfördes under februari i Svealand och Norrland.

Mastarbetarnas aktiviteter observerades under en vanlig arbetsdag i masten och hudtemperaturen

på sju ställen på kroppen, kroppstemperatur och hjärtfrekvens registrerades

kontinuerligt. De fick också skatta sin temperaturupplevelse och ansträngningsgrad

flera gånger under dagen. Lufttemperaturen varierade mellan -13 och 3 °C och vindhastigheten

mellan 1 och 13 m/s. Arbetsuppgifterna bestod av underhåll, montering och

byte av utrustning på masterna. Arbetstyngden varierade mycket under dagen från

mycket lätt (stillastående) till mycket tungt (klättring med börda). Syreförbrukningen

uppmättes under klättring till 15 - 38 ml/kg·min.

De flesta (sex av åtta) kände sig besvärade av kyla under dagen, fem även av vind.

Fyra hade lägre isolation än rekommenderat enligt kylaindexet IREQ. Sex angav att de

var svettiga under någon del av dagen. Ansiktet, händerna och fötterna var de

kroppsdelar som kändes kallast. Det berodde sannolikt främst på dålig isolation hos

handskar och skor, kontakt med kalla ytor, vind och stundtals arbete mer eller mindre

stillastående. Fingertemperaturen sjönk ner till 6-14 °C.

Lägsta uppmätta fottemperatur och tåtemperatur var 21 °C resp. 10 °C. Alla hade tåtemperaturer

under 18 °C någon gång under dagen. Två av de åtta var inte nöjda med

skyddsskorna. De ansågs stela i kyla respektive vara obekväma. Viktökningen i sockor

och skor var 6-94 g, vilket motsvarade en avdunstningshastighet från fötterna på minst

2-13 g/tim. De övriga arbetskläderna som användes ansågs skydda tillräckligt mot kyla.

En ökad flexibilitet hos overallen vore önskvärd för att släppa överskottsvärme.

För att minska risken att fötterna kyls ner genom avdunstning av svett från fötterna,

rekommenderas att skor och stövlar tas av vid varje rast inomhus. Elektriska skotorkar

kan användas för att snabbt få bort fukten ur skorna. Materialet i skorna bör vara smidigt

även i kyla. Sulmaterialet får inte bli stelt i kyla utan måste ge god friktion mot

mastkonstruktionen, snö och is.

Handskarna behöver förbättras, gällande passform, design, isolation, skydd mot skador

och smidighet.

Uppvärmningsmöjligheter ska beredas. Masthus bör vara uppvärmda. Varmluftsfläkt

eller strålningselement kan användas för att effektivisera uppvärmning av kalla

kroppsdelar. I master som saknar dessa möjligheter kan värmepåsar användas för att förebygga

nedkylning eller för uppvärmning.

Slutligen visade studien att god syreupptagningsförmåga och god hälsa behövs vid

mastarbete med hänsyn till att arbetet innebär klättring, då både kroppsmassan och

tunga bördor ska förflyttas uppför maststegar och mastkonstruktioner. Även god muskelstyrka

behövs vid lyft och firning av teknisk utrustning och verktyg. (Less)
Abstract
Désirée Gavhed, Kalev Kuklane, Ingvar Holmér. Work on masts in cold conditions. Arbetslivsrapport 1999:22.

Eight tower operators were studied in February during their ordinary duties in masts in four regions of Sweden. The activities of the workers were observed during a full working day and the skin temperature at seven spots, body temperature and heart rate were measured continuously. They also rated their thermal sensation and perceived exertion at several occasions. The air temperature varied between -13 and 3 °C and the wind speed between 1 and 13 m/s. The tasks were maintenance, mounting and exchange of equipment on the masts. The workload varied much during the day from very light (standing) to very heavy (climbing with... (More)
Désirée Gavhed, Kalev Kuklane, Ingvar Holmér. Work on masts in cold conditions. Arbetslivsrapport 1999:22.

Eight tower operators were studied in February during their ordinary duties in masts in four regions of Sweden. The activities of the workers were observed during a full working day and the skin temperature at seven spots, body temperature and heart rate were measured continuously. They also rated their thermal sensation and perceived exertion at several occasions. The air temperature varied between -13 and 3 °C and the wind speed between 1 and 13 m/s. The tasks were maintenance, mounting and exchange of equipment on the masts. The workload varied much during the day from very light (standing) to very heavy (climbing with loads). The oxygen consumption, measured during climbing, was 15 - 38 ml/kg·min. The majority (six out of eight) of mast workers were bothered by cold, five also by wind. Four had lower insulation than recommended according to the cold stress index IREQ. Six workers reported that they sweated during some part of the day. The face, the hands and the feet were reported as being the coldest body parts. This was probably mainly due to bad insulation in gloves and shoes, contact with cold surfaces, wind and periodically low physical activity. The finger temperature decreased to 6-14 °C. The lowest foot and toe temperature measured was 21 °C and 10 °C, respectively. All workers had lower toe temperatures than 18 °C at some occasion. Two workers were unsatisfied with the safety shoes. They were considered cold and uncomfortable. The weight gain in the socks and shoes was 6-94 g, which corresponded to an evaporation rate of above 2-13 g/h. The other work clothes used were considered to protect enough from cold. An improved flexibility of the coverall is recommended to let out excess heat. To reduce the risk of evaporative cooling of the feet, it is recommended that the footwear are detached at each break indoors. Electrical shoe heaters may be of good value to get rid of the accumulated moisture in the footwear. The shoe material should be flexible also in the cold. The sole material should not be stiff in the cold and give good friction against the mast construction snow and ice. There is a need for ergonomic improvement of the work gloves, concerning fit, design, insulation, protection against injuries and flexibility. Facilities for heating should be arranged. All mast huts should be heated. Hot air fans or radiators may be used for effective heating of cold body parts. In other conditions, heat bags can be used for cold prevention or heating. Finally, the study showed a need for good oxygen uptake capacity and good health at mast work. Moreover, good muscle power is required at lifting and lowering of equipment and tools.

Key words: cold, temperature, heart rate, oxygen consumption, wind, thermal sensation, workload, clothing, gloves, shoes (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Book/Report
publication status
published
subject
keywords
handskar, skor, arbetskläder, arbetstyngd, temperaturupplevelse, vind, syreupptagningsförmåga, hjärtfrekvens, kyla, temperatur
in
Arbetslivsrapport
volume
1999:22
pages
23 pages
publisher
Arbetslivsinstitutet, Stockholm, Sweden
ISSN
1401-2928
language
Swedish
LU publication?
no
id
7ab61a24-9285-44fa-88cc-c867005a0b49 (old id 635878)
alternative location
http://ebib.sub.su.se/arb/1999/arb1999_22.pdf
date added to LUP
2007-12-12 15:57:41
date last changed
2016-04-16 03:53:40
@techreport{7ab61a24-9285-44fa-88cc-c867005a0b49,
  abstract     = {Désirée Gavhed, Kalev Kuklane, Ingvar Holmér. Work on masts in cold conditions. Arbetslivsrapport 1999:22. <br/><br>
Eight tower operators were studied in February during their ordinary duties in masts in four regions of Sweden. The activities of the workers were observed during a full working day and the skin temperature at seven spots, body temperature and heart rate were measured continuously. They also rated their thermal sensation and perceived exertion at several occasions. The air temperature varied between -13 and 3 °C and the wind speed between 1 and 13 m/s. The tasks were maintenance, mounting and exchange of equipment on the masts. The workload varied much during the day from very light (standing) to very heavy (climbing with loads). The oxygen consumption, measured during climbing, was 15 - 38 ml/kg·min. The majority (six out of eight) of mast workers were bothered by cold, five also by wind. Four had lower insulation than recommended according to the cold stress index IREQ. Six workers reported that they sweated during some part of the day. The face, the hands and the feet were reported as being the coldest body parts. This was probably mainly due to bad insulation in gloves and shoes, contact with cold surfaces, wind and periodically low physical activity. The finger temperature decreased to 6-14 °C. The lowest foot and toe temperature measured was 21 °C and 10 °C, respectively. All workers had lower toe temperatures than 18 °C at some occasion. Two workers were unsatisfied with the safety shoes. They were considered cold and uncomfortable. The weight gain in the socks and shoes was 6-94 g, which corresponded to an evaporation rate of above 2-13 g/h. The other work clothes used were considered to protect enough from cold. An improved flexibility of the coverall is recommended to let out excess heat. To reduce the risk of evaporative cooling of the feet, it is recommended that the footwear are detached at each break indoors. Electrical shoe heaters may be of good value to get rid of the accumulated moisture in the footwear. The shoe material should be flexible also in the cold. The sole material should not be stiff in the cold and give good friction against the mast construction snow and ice. There is a need for ergonomic improvement of the work gloves, concerning fit, design, insulation, protection against injuries and flexibility. Facilities for heating should be arranged. All mast huts should be heated. Hot air fans or radiators may be used for effective heating of cold body parts. In other conditions, heat bags can be used for cold prevention or heating. Finally, the study showed a need for good oxygen uptake capacity and good health at mast work. Moreover, good muscle power is required at lifting and lowering of equipment and tools.<br/><br>
Key words: cold, temperature, heart rate, oxygen consumption, wind, thermal sensation, workload, clothing, gloves, shoes},
  author       = {Gavhed, Désirée and Kuklane, Kalev and Holmér, Ingvar},
  institution  = {Arbetslivsinstitutet, Stockholm, Sweden},
  issn         = {1401-2928},
  keyword      = {handskar,skor,arbetskläder,arbetstyngd,temperaturupplevelse,vind,syreupptagningsförmåga,hjärtfrekvens,kyla,temperatur},
  language     = {swe},
  pages        = {23},
  series       = {Arbetslivsrapport},
  title        = {Mastarbete i kyla},
  volume       = {1999:22},
  year         = {1999},
}