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Hematological response and diving response during apnea and apnea with face immersion

Schagatay, Erika; Andersson, Johan LU and Nielsen, Bodil (2007) In European Journal of Applied Physiology 101(1). p.125-132
Abstract
Increased hematocrit (Hct) attributable to splenic contraction accompanies human apneic diving or apnea with face immersion. Apnea also causes heart rate reduction and peripheral vasoconstriction, i.e., a cardiovascular diving response, which is augmented by face immersion. The aim was to study the role of apnea and facial immersion in the initiation of the hematological response and to relate this to the cardiovascular diving response and its oxygen conservation during repeated apneas. Seven male volunteers performed two series of five apneas of fixed near-maximal duration: one series in air (A) and the other with facial immersion in 10 degrees C water (FIA). Apneas were spaced by 2 min and series by 20 min of rest. Venous blood samples,... (More)
Increased hematocrit (Hct) attributable to splenic contraction accompanies human apneic diving or apnea with face immersion. Apnea also causes heart rate reduction and peripheral vasoconstriction, i.e., a cardiovascular diving response, which is augmented by face immersion. The aim was to study the role of apnea and facial immersion in the initiation of the hematological response and to relate this to the cardiovascular diving response and its oxygen conservation during repeated apneas. Seven male volunteers performed two series of five apneas of fixed near-maximal duration: one series in air (A) and the other with facial immersion in 10 degrees C water (FIA). Apneas were spaced by 2 min and series by 20 min of rest. Venous blood samples, taken before and after each apnea, were analysed for Hct, hemoglobin concentration (Hb), lactic acid, blood gases and pH. Heart rate, skin capillary blood flow and arterial oxygen saturation were continuously measured non-invasively. A transient increase of Hct and Hb by approximately 4% developed progressively across both series. As no increase of the response resulted with face immersion, we concluded that the apnea, or its consequences, is the major stimulus evoking splenic contraction. An augmented cardiovascular diving response occurred during FIA compared to A. Arterial oxygen saturation remained higher, venous oxygen stores were more depleted and lactic acid accumulation was higher across the FIA series, indicating oxygen conservation with the more powerful diving response. This study shows that the hematological response is not involved in causing the difference in oxygen saturation between apnea and apnea with face immersion. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Spleen contraction - Hematocrit - Oxygen conservation - Face immersion - Breath-hold
in
European Journal of Applied Physiology
volume
101
issue
1
pages
125 - 132
publisher
Springer
external identifiers
  • wos:000249100000015
  • scopus:34548210809
ISSN
1439-6327
DOI
10.1007/s00421-007-0483-y
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
7c897b29-6661-4dda-b284-19f867e43cf8 (old id 637800)
date added to LUP
2007-11-30 12:13:26
date last changed
2017-07-09 04:33:36
@article{7c897b29-6661-4dda-b284-19f867e43cf8,
  abstract     = {Increased hematocrit (Hct) attributable to splenic contraction accompanies human apneic diving or apnea with face immersion. Apnea also causes heart rate reduction and peripheral vasoconstriction, i.e., a cardiovascular diving response, which is augmented by face immersion. The aim was to study the role of apnea and facial immersion in the initiation of the hematological response and to relate this to the cardiovascular diving response and its oxygen conservation during repeated apneas. Seven male volunteers performed two series of five apneas of fixed near-maximal duration: one series in air (A) and the other with facial immersion in 10 degrees C water (FIA). Apneas were spaced by 2 min and series by 20 min of rest. Venous blood samples, taken before and after each apnea, were analysed for Hct, hemoglobin concentration (Hb), lactic acid, blood gases and pH. Heart rate, skin capillary blood flow and arterial oxygen saturation were continuously measured non-invasively. A transient increase of Hct and Hb by approximately 4% developed progressively across both series. As no increase of the response resulted with face immersion, we concluded that the apnea, or its consequences, is the major stimulus evoking splenic contraction. An augmented cardiovascular diving response occurred during FIA compared to A. Arterial oxygen saturation remained higher, venous oxygen stores were more depleted and lactic acid accumulation was higher across the FIA series, indicating oxygen conservation with the more powerful diving response. This study shows that the hematological response is not involved in causing the difference in oxygen saturation between apnea and apnea with face immersion.},
  author       = {Schagatay, Erika and Andersson, Johan and Nielsen, Bodil},
  issn         = {1439-6327},
  keyword      = {Spleen contraction - Hematocrit - Oxygen conservation - Face immersion - Breath-hold},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {125--132},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {European Journal of Applied Physiology},
  title        = {Hematological response and diving response during apnea and apnea with face immersion},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-007-0483-y},
  volume       = {101},
  year         = {2007},
}