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Chemical changes in rubber allergens during vulcanization

Bergendorff, Ola LU ; Persson, Christina; Ludtke, Anna and Hansson, Christer LU (2007) In Contact Dermatitis 57(3). p.152-157
Abstract
Allergic contact dermatitis to rubber is caused by residues of chemicals used in manufacturing a rubber product. Several different additives are used to achieve a final product of the desired characteristics. Accelerators such as thiurams, dithiocarbamates, and mercaptobenzothiazoles are often among the additives responsible for allergic reactions recognized by dermatologists. The chemistry of the vulcanization process is complicated; as it occurs at an elevated temperature with a mixture of reactive chemicals, the compositions of the initial and final products differ. This paper investigates the changes in composition of common allergens during vulcanization, doing so by chemically analysing various rubber formulations at different stages... (More)
Allergic contact dermatitis to rubber is caused by residues of chemicals used in manufacturing a rubber product. Several different additives are used to achieve a final product of the desired characteristics. Accelerators such as thiurams, dithiocarbamates, and mercaptobenzothiazoles are often among the additives responsible for allergic reactions recognized by dermatologists. The chemistry of the vulcanization process is complicated; as it occurs at an elevated temperature with a mixture of reactive chemicals, the compositions of the initial and final products differ. This paper investigates the changes in composition of common allergens during vulcanization, doing so by chemically analysing various rubber formulations at different stages of the process. Major changes were found in which added chemicals were consumed and new ones produced. An important observation is that thiuram disulfides rarely appear in the final rubber although they may have been used as additives. Instead, thiurams are often converted to dithiocarbamates or to products formed by addition to mercaptobenzothiazole structures, if these have been used together with thiurams as accelerators. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
thiuram, rubber chemicals, mercaptobenzothiazole, allergic contact dermatitis, dithiocarbamate, vulcanization, (c) Blackwell Munksgaard, 2007
in
Contact Dermatitis
volume
57
issue
3
pages
152 - 157
publisher
Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd
external identifiers
  • wos:000248591900002
  • scopus:34547800188
ISSN
0105-1873
DOI
10.1111/j.1600-0536.2007.01194.x
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
98ace667-236c-4913-aae4-a65e0ccdd4e4 (old id 647511)
date added to LUP
2007-12-05 14:19:34
date last changed
2017-10-22 03:38:54
@article{98ace667-236c-4913-aae4-a65e0ccdd4e4,
  abstract     = {Allergic contact dermatitis to rubber is caused by residues of chemicals used in manufacturing a rubber product. Several different additives are used to achieve a final product of the desired characteristics. Accelerators such as thiurams, dithiocarbamates, and mercaptobenzothiazoles are often among the additives responsible for allergic reactions recognized by dermatologists. The chemistry of the vulcanization process is complicated; as it occurs at an elevated temperature with a mixture of reactive chemicals, the compositions of the initial and final products differ. This paper investigates the changes in composition of common allergens during vulcanization, doing so by chemically analysing various rubber formulations at different stages of the process. Major changes were found in which added chemicals were consumed and new ones produced. An important observation is that thiuram disulfides rarely appear in the final rubber although they may have been used as additives. Instead, thiurams are often converted to dithiocarbamates or to products formed by addition to mercaptobenzothiazole structures, if these have been used together with thiurams as accelerators.},
  author       = {Bergendorff, Ola and Persson, Christina and Ludtke, Anna and Hansson, Christer},
  issn         = {0105-1873},
  keyword      = {thiuram,rubber chemicals,mercaptobenzothiazole,allergic contact dermatitis,dithiocarbamate,vulcanization,(c) Blackwell Munksgaard,2007},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {152--157},
  publisher    = {Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd},
  series       = {Contact Dermatitis},
  title        = {Chemical changes in rubber allergens during vulcanization},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0536.2007.01194.x},
  volume       = {57},
  year         = {2007},
}