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Mortality risks among heavy-smokers with special reference to women: a long-term follow-up of an urban population

Ekberg, Marie LU ; Nilsson, P. M.; Nilsson, J.-A.; Löfdahl, Claes-Göran LU and Löfdahl, K. (2007) In European Journal of Epidemiology 22(5). p.301-309
Abstract
Increased mortality risks associated with smoking are well established among men. There are very few population-based studies comprising a sufficient number of heavily smoking women, measuring the direct effect of smoking on mortality risks. Between 1974 and 1992, 8,499 women and 13,888 men attended a health screening programme including reporting of smoking habits. Individuals were followed for total mortality until 2005. All-cause, cancer, cardiovascular, lung cancer and respiratory mortality were calculated in smoking categories < 10 g per day, 10-19 g per day, and >= 20 g per day with never-smokers as a reference group and with adjustments for co-morbidities, socio-economic and marital status. For respiratory mortality and lung... (More)
Increased mortality risks associated with smoking are well established among men. There are very few population-based studies comprising a sufficient number of heavily smoking women, measuring the direct effect of smoking on mortality risks. Between 1974 and 1992, 8,499 women and 13,888 men attended a health screening programme including reporting of smoking habits. Individuals were followed for total mortality until 2005. All-cause, cancer, cardiovascular, lung cancer and respiratory mortality were calculated in smoking categories < 10 g per day, 10-19 g per day, and >= 20 g per day with never-smokers as a reference group and with adjustments for co-morbidities, socio-economic and marital status. For respiratory mortality and lung cancer adjustments for FEV1, socio-economic and marital status were performed. Smoking was associated with a two to almost threefold increased mortality risk among women and men. The relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval, (CI) for women who smoked 10-19 g per day was 2.44 (2.07-2.87), and for those who smoked 20 g per day or more the RR (95% CI) was 2.42 (2.00-2.92). Smoking was a strong risk factor for cardiovascular mortality among women, the RR (95% CI) for women who smoked 10-19 g per day was 4.52 (3.07-6.64). Ex-smoking women showed increased risks of all-cause mortality; RR (95% CI) 1.26 (1.04-1.52) cancer (excluding lung cancer); RR (95% CI) 1.42 (1.07-1.88) and lung cancer RR (95% CI) 2.71 (1.02-7.23) mortality. However, the cardiovascular; RR (95% CI) 1.18 (0.69-2.00) and respiratory; RR (95% CI) 0.79 (0.16-3.84) mortality risks were not statistically significant. This study confirms that as for men, middle-aged heavily smoking women have a two to threefold increased mortality risk. Adjustments for co-morbidity, socio-economic and marital status did not change these results. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Tobacco, Women, Smoking, Mortality, Epidemiology, Men
in
European Journal of Epidemiology
volume
22
issue
5
pages
301 - 309
publisher
Springer
external identifiers
  • wos:000247211000004
  • scopus:34249983822
ISSN
1573-7284
DOI
10.1007/s10654-007-9120-7
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
211d5407-f647-49e0-a006-ed97e7c9c41a (old id 648930)
date added to LUP
2007-12-06 12:55:15
date last changed
2017-10-22 03:47:55
@article{211d5407-f647-49e0-a006-ed97e7c9c41a,
  abstract     = {Increased mortality risks associated with smoking are well established among men. There are very few population-based studies comprising a sufficient number of heavily smoking women, measuring the direct effect of smoking on mortality risks. Between 1974 and 1992, 8,499 women and 13,888 men attended a health screening programme including reporting of smoking habits. Individuals were followed for total mortality until 2005. All-cause, cancer, cardiovascular, lung cancer and respiratory mortality were calculated in smoking categories &lt; 10 g per day, 10-19 g per day, and &gt;= 20 g per day with never-smokers as a reference group and with adjustments for co-morbidities, socio-economic and marital status. For respiratory mortality and lung cancer adjustments for FEV1, socio-economic and marital status were performed. Smoking was associated with a two to almost threefold increased mortality risk among women and men. The relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval, (CI) for women who smoked 10-19 g per day was 2.44 (2.07-2.87), and for those who smoked 20 g per day or more the RR (95% CI) was 2.42 (2.00-2.92). Smoking was a strong risk factor for cardiovascular mortality among women, the RR (95% CI) for women who smoked 10-19 g per day was 4.52 (3.07-6.64). Ex-smoking women showed increased risks of all-cause mortality; RR (95% CI) 1.26 (1.04-1.52) cancer (excluding lung cancer); RR (95% CI) 1.42 (1.07-1.88) and lung cancer RR (95% CI) 2.71 (1.02-7.23) mortality. However, the cardiovascular; RR (95% CI) 1.18 (0.69-2.00) and respiratory; RR (95% CI) 0.79 (0.16-3.84) mortality risks were not statistically significant. This study confirms that as for men, middle-aged heavily smoking women have a two to threefold increased mortality risk. Adjustments for co-morbidity, socio-economic and marital status did not change these results.},
  author       = {Ekberg, Marie and Nilsson, P. M. and Nilsson, J.-A. and Löfdahl, Claes-Göran and Löfdahl, K.},
  issn         = {1573-7284},
  keyword      = {Tobacco,Women,Smoking,Mortality,Epidemiology,Men},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {301--309},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {European Journal of Epidemiology},
  title        = {Mortality risks among heavy-smokers with special reference to women: a long-term follow-up of an urban population},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-007-9120-7},
  volume       = {22},
  year         = {2007},
}