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Planetesimal Formation by the Streaming Instability in a Photoevaporating Disk

Carrera, Daniel LU ; Gorti, Uma; Johansen, Anders LU and Davies, Melvyn B. LU (2017) In Astrophysical Journal 839(1).
Abstract

Recent years have seen growing interest in the streaming instability as a candidate mechanism to produce planetesimals. However, these investigations have been limited to small-scale simulations. We now present the results of a global protoplanetary disk evolution model that incorporates planetesimal formation by the streaming instability, along with viscous accretion, photoevaporation by EUV, FUV, and X-ray photons, dust evolution, the water ice line, and stratified turbulence. Our simulations produce massive (60-130 M ) planetesimal belts beyond 100 au and up to ∼20 M of planetesimals in the middle regions (3-100 au). Our most comprehensive model forms 8 M of planetesimals inside 3 au, where they... (More)

Recent years have seen growing interest in the streaming instability as a candidate mechanism to produce planetesimals. However, these investigations have been limited to small-scale simulations. We now present the results of a global protoplanetary disk evolution model that incorporates planetesimal formation by the streaming instability, along with viscous accretion, photoevaporation by EUV, FUV, and X-ray photons, dust evolution, the water ice line, and stratified turbulence. Our simulations produce massive (60-130 M ) planetesimal belts beyond 100 au and up to ∼20 M of planetesimals in the middle regions (3-100 au). Our most comprehensive model forms 8 M of planetesimals inside 3 au, where they can give rise to terrestrial planets. The planetesimal mass formed in the inner disk depends critically on the timing of the formation of an inner cavity in the disk by high-energy photons. Our results show that the combination of photoevaporation and the streaming instability are efficient at converting the solid component of protoplanetary disks into planetesimals. Our model, however, does not form enough early planetesimals in the inner and middle regions of the disk to give rise to giant planets and super-Earths with gaseous envelopes. Additional processes such as particle pileups and mass loss driven by MHD winds may be needed to drive the formation of early planetesimal generations in the planet-forming regions of protoplanetary disks.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
accretion, accretion disks, planets and satellites: formation, planets and satellites: terrestrial planets, protoplanetary disks
in
Astrophysical Journal
volume
839
issue
1
publisher
University of Chicago Press
external identifiers
  • scopus:85018486262
  • wos:000399251000001
ISSN
0004-637X
DOI
10.3847/1538-4357/aa6932
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
68ffb112-9a19-4615-aeab-fc57f1b5ff00
alternative location
https://arxiv.org/abs/1703.07895
date added to LUP
2017-05-19 08:30:23
date last changed
2018-07-01 04:45:37
@article{68ffb112-9a19-4615-aeab-fc57f1b5ff00,
  abstract     = {<p>Recent years have seen growing interest in the streaming instability as a candidate mechanism to produce planetesimals. However, these investigations have been limited to small-scale simulations. We now present the results of a global protoplanetary disk evolution model that incorporates planetesimal formation by the streaming instability, along with viscous accretion, photoevaporation by EUV, FUV, and X-ray photons, dust evolution, the water ice line, and stratified turbulence. Our simulations produce massive (60-130 M <sub>⊕</sub>) planetesimal belts beyond 100 au and up to ∼20 M <sub>⊕</sub> of planetesimals in the middle regions (3-100 au). Our most comprehensive model forms 8 M <sub>⊕</sub> of planetesimals inside 3 au, where they can give rise to terrestrial planets. The planetesimal mass formed in the inner disk depends critically on the timing of the formation of an inner cavity in the disk by high-energy photons. Our results show that the combination of photoevaporation and the streaming instability are efficient at converting the solid component of protoplanetary disks into planetesimals. Our model, however, does not form enough early planetesimals in the inner and middle regions of the disk to give rise to giant planets and super-Earths with gaseous envelopes. Additional processes such as particle pileups and mass loss driven by MHD winds may be needed to drive the formation of early planetesimal generations in the planet-forming regions of protoplanetary disks.</p>},
  articleno    = {16},
  author       = {Carrera, Daniel and Gorti, Uma and Johansen, Anders and Davies, Melvyn B.},
  issn         = {0004-637X},
  keyword      = {accretion, accretion disks,planets and satellites: formation,planets and satellites: terrestrial planets,protoplanetary disks},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {04},
  number       = {1},
  publisher    = {University of Chicago Press},
  series       = {Astrophysical Journal},
  title        = {Planetesimal Formation by the Streaming Instability in a Photoevaporating Disk},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa6932},
  volume       = {839},
  year         = {2017},
}