Advanced

Simulation of Phosphorus, Zinc and Cadmium Mass Flow in Dairy Farming Systems

Modin Edman, Anna-Karin LU (2007)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

En simuleringsmodell, FARMFLOW, utvecklades för att beräkna förråd, flöden och balanser av fosfor (P), zink (Zn) och kadmium (Cd) på mjölkgårdar. De simulerade kontinuerliga förändringarna av ämnesförråden gör det möjligt att utvärdera de långsiktiga effekterna av olika skötselstrategier. Fältdata från en svensk försöksgård, Öjebyn, användes för att parameterisera FARMFLOW. På Öjebyn har ekologisk och konventionell mjölkproduktion drivits paralellt under två växtföljdsomlopp (12 år). Simuleringar gjordes över 36 år och de simulerade effekterna av de två driftsformerna på förråd, flöden och balanser av P, Zn och Cd analyserades. Den simulerade fältspecifika ackumulationen av de tre ämnena styrdes... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

En simuleringsmodell, FARMFLOW, utvecklades för att beräkna förråd, flöden och balanser av fosfor (P), zink (Zn) och kadmium (Cd) på mjölkgårdar. De simulerade kontinuerliga förändringarna av ämnesförråden gör det möjligt att utvärdera de långsiktiga effekterna av olika skötselstrategier. Fältdata från en svensk försöksgård, Öjebyn, användes för att parameterisera FARMFLOW. På Öjebyn har ekologisk och konventionell mjölkproduktion drivits paralellt under två växtföljdsomlopp (12 år). Simuleringar gjordes över 36 år och de simulerade effekterna av de två driftsformerna på förråd, flöden och balanser av P, Zn och Cd analyserades. Den simulerade fältspecifika ackumulationen av de tre ämnena styrdes främst av olika gödselgivor för de olika fälten, orsakade av fältstorleksskillnader, och av olika förluster för de olika fälten, orsakade av skillnader i uppgödslingsgrad. Simuleringar där djurtätheten ökades visar att FARMFLOW kan användas för att utvärdera effekterna av intensifiering av produktionen med avseende på tex. P gödselgivorna. Variationer i tex. skörd och koncentrationerna av P, Zn och Cd observerades på Öjebyn. För att utvärdera effekterna av dessa variationer på förråd, flöden och balanser parameteriserades FARMFLOW med data inklusive denna variation. För P orsakade variationerna små variationer i grindbalansen och gjorde inte att balanserna varierade kring noll, som vanligen används som riktvärdet. För Zn visade det sig att inte ens den största simulerade ackumulationen orsakade Zn koncentrationer som riskerade markens bördighet på 36 års sikt. För Cd visade det sig att upptaget av kadmium i grödor kan skilja sig 20% från medelvärdet. (Less)
Abstract
A simulation model, FARMFLOW, was developed for the calculation of phosphorus (P), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) stocks, flows and balances in different parts of a dairy farming system. The simulated continuous change in element stocks within the farming system enables evaluation of the long-term effects of management practices. The FARMFLOW model reproduces feedback mechanisms of the internal cycling of nutrients and trace elements between crops and animals on the dairy farm in feed and manure. In addition, FARMFLOW reproduces the balancing feedbacks in the system, consisting of export of elements in milk, crops and animals as well as losses from the soil system.



Field data from a case study at the Swedish experimental... (More)
A simulation model, FARMFLOW, was developed for the calculation of phosphorus (P), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) stocks, flows and balances in different parts of a dairy farming system. The simulated continuous change in element stocks within the farming system enables evaluation of the long-term effects of management practices. The FARMFLOW model reproduces feedback mechanisms of the internal cycling of nutrients and trace elements between crops and animals on the dairy farm in feed and manure. In addition, FARMFLOW reproduces the balancing feedbacks in the system, consisting of export of elements in milk, crops and animals as well as losses from the soil system.



Field data from a case study at the Swedish experimental farm Öjebyn were used to parameterise FARMFLOW. At Öjebyn, organic and conventional management practices were run in parallel over 12 years. Simulations were made over 6 crop rotations, i.e. 36 years. The simulated effects of the management practices on the stocks, flows and balances of P, Zn and Cd are presented for the organic farming system (OFS) and for the conventional farming system (CFS) at Öjebyn.



The simulated field-specific element accumulation rates were mainly governed by the difference in manure application rate between the fields, arising from differences in field size, and by differences in losses between the fields, arising from differences in the initial elemental content of the fields. Simulations with increasing animal density in the two management systems showed that FARMFLOW is useful in predicting the impact of intensification on, e.g. the manure P application rates.



Annual variations in mass flows, e.g. yields, and element concentrations were observed at the Öjebyn farm. In order to evaluate the impact on the element stocks, flows and balances of variations in the system, FARMFLOW was parameterised with input data including these variations. For P, the variations generated moderate variations in the farm gate P balances, and the variations did not cause a shift in the balances around the policy target of zero. For Zn, it was shown that even the highest simulated accumulation rates of the two systems did not cause soil Zn concentrations risking adverse effects on soil fertility in a 36 year perspective. For Cd, the variations can lead to up to 20% higher removal of Cd in harvested crops than average values. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • PhD, Senior Researcher Halberg, Niels, Det Jordbrugsvidenskabelige Fakultet, Aarhus Universitet, Denmark
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Kemiteknik och kemisk teknologi, Chemical technology and engineering, Miljöstudier, Environmental studies, management, Cd, Zn, P, mass balance, system analysis, simulation
pages
53 pages
publisher
Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University
defense location
Föreläsningssal 111, Geocentrum 1, Sölvegatan 10, Lund
defense date
2007-03-16 13:15
external identifiers
  • other:ISRN: LUTKDD/TKKT-3029-SE
ISSN
1104-2877
ISBN
13-978-91-633-0349-4
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
699be1af-b15e-4d11-bf3b-c2bb9c7000d8 (old id 548176)
date added to LUP
2007-10-09 12:50:20
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:58
@phdthesis{699be1af-b15e-4d11-bf3b-c2bb9c7000d8,
  abstract     = {A simulation model, FARMFLOW, was developed for the calculation of phosphorus (P), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) stocks, flows and balances in different parts of a dairy farming system. The simulated continuous change in element stocks within the farming system enables evaluation of the long-term effects of management practices. The FARMFLOW model reproduces feedback mechanisms of the internal cycling of nutrients and trace elements between crops and animals on the dairy farm in feed and manure. In addition, FARMFLOW reproduces the balancing feedbacks in the system, consisting of export of elements in milk, crops and animals as well as losses from the soil system.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Field data from a case study at the Swedish experimental farm Öjebyn were used to parameterise FARMFLOW. At Öjebyn, organic and conventional management practices were run in parallel over 12 years. Simulations were made over 6 crop rotations, i.e. 36 years. The simulated effects of the management practices on the stocks, flows and balances of P, Zn and Cd are presented for the organic farming system (OFS) and for the conventional farming system (CFS) at Öjebyn.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The simulated field-specific element accumulation rates were mainly governed by the difference in manure application rate between the fields, arising from differences in field size, and by differences in losses between the fields, arising from differences in the initial elemental content of the fields. Simulations with increasing animal density in the two management systems showed that FARMFLOW is useful in predicting the impact of intensification on, e.g. the manure P application rates.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Annual variations in mass flows, e.g. yields, and element concentrations were observed at the Öjebyn farm. In order to evaluate the impact on the element stocks, flows and balances of variations in the system, FARMFLOW was parameterised with input data including these variations. For P, the variations generated moderate variations in the farm gate P balances, and the variations did not cause a shift in the balances around the policy target of zero. For Zn, it was shown that even the highest simulated accumulation rates of the two systems did not cause soil Zn concentrations risking adverse effects on soil fertility in a 36 year perspective. For Cd, the variations can lead to up to 20% higher removal of Cd in harvested crops than average values.},
  author       = {Modin Edman, Anna-Karin},
  isbn         = {13-978-91-633-0349-4},
  issn         = {1104-2877},
  keyword      = {Kemiteknik och kemisk teknologi,Chemical technology and engineering,Miljöstudier,Environmental studies,management,Cd,Zn,P,mass balance,system analysis,simulation},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {53},
  publisher    = {Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {Simulation of Phosphorus, Zinc and Cadmium Mass Flow in Dairy Farming Systems},
  year         = {2007},
}