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Local variation in Bi crystal sites of epitaxial GaAsBi studied by photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles calculations

Laukkanen, P; Punkkinen, M. P. J.; Lahti, A.; Puustinen, J.; Tuominen, M; Hilska, J.; Mäkelä, J; Dahl, J.; Yasir, M. and Kuzmin, M, et al. (2017) In Applied Surface Science 396. p.688-694
Abstract

Epitaxial Bi-containing III–V crystals (III-V1-xBix) have attracted increasing interest due to their potential in infrared applications. Atomic-scale characterization and engineering of bulk-like III-V1-xBix properties (e.g., Bi incorporation and defect formation) are challenging but relevant to develop applications. Toward that target, we report here that the traditional surface-science measurement of photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is a potential, non-destructive method to be combined in the studies of bulk-like properties, when surface effects are properly removed. We have investigated epitaxial GaAs1-xBix films, capped by epitaxial AlAs layers, with high-resolution... (More)

Epitaxial Bi-containing III–V crystals (III-V1-xBix) have attracted increasing interest due to their potential in infrared applications. Atomic-scale characterization and engineering of bulk-like III-V1-xBix properties (e.g., Bi incorporation and defect formation) are challenging but relevant to develop applications. Toward that target, we report here that the traditional surface-science measurement of photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is a potential, non-destructive method to be combined in the studies of bulk-like properties, when surface effects are properly removed. We have investigated epitaxial GaAs1-xBix films, capped by epitaxial AlAs layers, with high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy. The Bi5d core-level spectra of GaAs1-xBix together with ab-initio calculations give direct evidence of variation of Bi bonding environment in the lattice sites. The result agrees with photoluminescence (PL) measurement which shows that the studied GaAs1-xBix films include local areas with higher Bi content, which contribute to PL but do not readily appear in x-ray diffraction (XRD). The measured and calculated Bi core-level shifts show also that Ga vacancies and Bi clusters are dominant defects.

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publication status
published
subject
keywords
GaAsBi, Photoelectron spectroscopy, Photoluminescence, Synchrotron radiation
in
Applied Surface Science
volume
396
pages
7 pages
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • scopus:85006814750
  • wos:000396223500085
ISSN
0169-4332
DOI
10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.11.009
language
English
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yes
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6ee67392-4b61-4b8a-afea-70088bad3dcd
date added to LUP
2017-02-03 10:06:18
date last changed
2018-01-07 11:47:57
@article{6ee67392-4b61-4b8a-afea-70088bad3dcd,
  abstract     = {<p>Epitaxial Bi-containing III–V crystals (III-V<sub>1-x</sub>Bi<sub>x</sub>) have attracted increasing interest due to their potential in infrared applications. Atomic-scale characterization and engineering of bulk-like III-V<sub>1-x</sub>Bi<sub>x</sub> properties (e.g., Bi incorporation and defect formation) are challenging but relevant to develop applications. Toward that target, we report here that the traditional surface-science measurement of photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is a potential, non-destructive method to be combined in the studies of bulk-like properties, when surface effects are properly removed. We have investigated epitaxial GaAs<sub>1-x</sub>Bi<sub>x</sub> films, capped by epitaxial AlAs layers, with high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy. The Bi5d core-level spectra of GaAs<sub>1-x</sub>Bi<sub>x</sub> together with ab-initio calculations give direct evidence of variation of Bi bonding environment in the lattice sites. The result agrees with photoluminescence (PL) measurement which shows that the studied GaAs<sub>1-x</sub>Bi<sub>x</sub> films include local areas with higher Bi content, which contribute to PL but do not readily appear in x-ray diffraction (XRD). The measured and calculated Bi core-level shifts show also that Ga vacancies and Bi clusters are dominant defects.</p>},
  author       = {Laukkanen, P and Punkkinen, M. P. J. and Lahti, A. and Puustinen, J. and Tuominen, M and Hilska, J. and Mäkelä, J and Dahl, J. and Yasir, M. and Kuzmin, M and Osiecki, J. R. and Schulte, K. and Guina, M. and Kokko, K},
  issn         = {0169-4332},
  keyword      = {GaAsBi,Photoelectron spectroscopy,Photoluminescence,Synchrotron radiation},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {02},
  pages        = {688--694},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Applied Surface Science},
  title        = {Local variation in Bi crystal sites of epitaxial GaAsBi studied by photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles calculations},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.11.009},
  volume       = {396},
  year         = {2017},
}