Advanced

Characterization of C-14 in Swedish light-water reactors

Magnusson, Åsa LU ; Aronsson, P-O; Lundgren, K and Stenström, Kristina LU (2008) In Health Physics 95(2). p.110-121
Abstract
This paper presents the results of a 4-y investigation of C-14 in different waste streams of both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Due to the potential impact of C-14 on human health, minimizing waste and releases from the nuclear power industry is of considerable interest. The experimental data and conclusions may be implemented to select appropriate waste management strategies and practices at reactor units and disposal facilities. Organic and inorganic C-14 in spent ion exchange resins, process water systems, ejector off-gas and replaced steam generator tubes were analyzed using a recently developed extraction method. Separate analysis of the chemical species is of importance in order to model and... (More)
This paper presents the results of a 4-y investigation of C-14 in different waste streams of both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Due to the potential impact of C-14 on human health, minimizing waste and releases from the nuclear power industry is of considerable interest. The experimental data and conclusions may be implemented to select appropriate waste management strategies and practices at reactor units and disposal facilities. Organic and inorganic C-14 in spent ion exchange resins, process water systems, ejector off-gas and replaced steam generator tubes were analyzed using a recently developed extraction method. Separate analysis of the chemical species is of importance in order to model and predict the fate of C-14 within process systems as well as in dose calculations for disposal facilities. By combining the results of this investigation with newly calculated production rates, mass balance assessments were made of the C-14 originating from production in the coolant. Of the C-14 formed in the coolant of BWRs, 0.6-0.8% was found to be accumulated in the ion exchange resins (core-specific production rate in the coolant of a 2,500 MWth BWR calculated to be 580 GB(q) GW(e)(-1) y(-1)). The corresponding value for PWRs was 6-10% (production rate in a 2,775 MWth PWR calculated to be 350 GBq GW(e)(-1) y(-1)). The C-14 released with liquid discharges was found to be insignificant, constituting less than 0.5% of the production in the coolant. The stack releases, routinely measured at the power plants, were found to correspond to 60-155% of the calculated coolant production, with large variations between the BWR units. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
C-14, operational topics, waste, low-level, nuclear power plant
in
Health Physics
volume
95
issue
2
pages
110 - 121
publisher
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
external identifiers
  • WOS:000258135900002
ISSN
1538-5159
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
bf7cef30-83bd-4737-9ada-8953703ecaf7 (old id 741480)
date added to LUP
2007-12-13 12:10:35
date last changed
2016-04-16 09:18:15
@article{bf7cef30-83bd-4737-9ada-8953703ecaf7,
  abstract     = {This paper presents the results of a 4-y investigation of C-14 in different waste streams of both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Due to the potential impact of C-14 on human health, minimizing waste and releases from the nuclear power industry is of considerable interest. The experimental data and conclusions may be implemented to select appropriate waste management strategies and practices at reactor units and disposal facilities. Organic and inorganic C-14 in spent ion exchange resins, process water systems, ejector off-gas and replaced steam generator tubes were analyzed using a recently developed extraction method. Separate analysis of the chemical species is of importance in order to model and predict the fate of C-14 within process systems as well as in dose calculations for disposal facilities. By combining the results of this investigation with newly calculated production rates, mass balance assessments were made of the C-14 originating from production in the coolant. Of the C-14 formed in the coolant of BWRs, 0.6-0.8% was found to be accumulated in the ion exchange resins (core-specific production rate in the coolant of a 2,500 MWth BWR calculated to be 580 GB(q) GW(e)(-1) y(-1)). The corresponding value for PWRs was 6-10% (production rate in a 2,775 MWth PWR calculated to be 350 GBq GW(e)(-1) y(-1)). The C-14 released with liquid discharges was found to be insignificant, constituting less than 0.5% of the production in the coolant. The stack releases, routinely measured at the power plants, were found to correspond to 60-155% of the calculated coolant production, with large variations between the BWR units.},
  author       = {Magnusson, Åsa and Aronsson, P-O and Lundgren, K and Stenström, Kristina},
  issn         = {1538-5159},
  keyword      = {C-14,operational topics,waste,low-level,nuclear power plant},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {110--121},
  publisher    = {Lippincott Williams & Wilkins},
  series       = {Health Physics},
  title        = {Characterization of C-14 in Swedish light-water reactors},
  volume       = {95},
  year         = {2008},
}