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Massive MIMO in Real Propagation Environments: Do All Antennas Contribute Equally?

Gao, Xiang LU ; Edfors, Ove LU ; Tufvesson, Fredrik LU and Larsson, Erik G. (2015) In IEEE Transactions on Communications 63(11). p.3917-3928
Abstract
Massive MIMO can greatly increase both spectral and transmit-energy efficiency. This is achieved by allowing the number of antennas and RF chains to grow very large. However, the challenges include high system complexity and hardware energy consumption. Here we investigate the possibilities to reduce the required number of RF chains, by performing antenna selection. While this approach is not a very effective strategy for

theoretical independent Rayleigh fading channels, a substantial reduction in the number of RF chains can be achieved for real massive MIMO channels, without significant performance loss. We evaluate antenna selection performance on measured channels at 2.6 GHz, using a linear and a cylindrical array, both having... (More)
Massive MIMO can greatly increase both spectral and transmit-energy efficiency. This is achieved by allowing the number of antennas and RF chains to grow very large. However, the challenges include high system complexity and hardware energy consumption. Here we investigate the possibilities to reduce the required number of RF chains, by performing antenna selection. While this approach is not a very effective strategy for

theoretical independent Rayleigh fading channels, a substantial reduction in the number of RF chains can be achieved for real massive MIMO channels, without significant performance loss. We evaluate antenna selection performance on measured channels at 2.6 GHz, using a linear and a cylindrical array, both having 128 elements. Sum-rate maximization is used as the criterion for antenna selection. A selection scheme based on convex optimization is nearly optimal and used as a benchmark. The achieved sum-rate is compared with that of a very simple scheme that selects the antennas with the highest received power. The power-based scheme gives performance close to the convex optimization scheme, for the measured channels. This observation indicates a potential for significant reductions of massive MIMO

implementation complexity, by reducing the number of RF chains and performing antenna selection using simple algorithms. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
large-scale fading, spatial diversity, multi-user MIMO, Massive MIMO, antenna selection, channel measurements, channel capacity, sum-rate, linear precoding, 5G
in
IEEE Transactions on Communications
volume
63
issue
11
pages
3917 - 3928
publisher
IEEE--Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
external identifiers
  • wos:000366506500002
  • scopus:84959482904
ISSN
0090-6778
DOI
10.1109/TCOMM.2015.2462350
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
511a430c-3c75-4a12-8415-7f600f4644bd (old id 7695486)
date added to LUP
2015-07-27 14:12:52
date last changed
2017-10-01 04:01:13
@article{511a430c-3c75-4a12-8415-7f600f4644bd,
  abstract     = {Massive MIMO can greatly increase both spectral and transmit-energy efficiency. This is achieved by allowing the number of antennas and RF chains to grow very large. However, the challenges include high system complexity and hardware energy consumption. Here we investigate the possibilities to reduce the required number of RF chains, by performing antenna selection. While this approach is not a very effective strategy for<br/><br>
theoretical independent Rayleigh fading channels, a substantial reduction in the number of RF chains can be achieved for real massive MIMO channels, without significant performance loss. We evaluate antenna selection performance on measured channels at 2.6 GHz, using a linear and a cylindrical array, both having 128 elements. Sum-rate maximization is used as the criterion for antenna selection. A selection scheme based on convex optimization is nearly optimal and used as a benchmark. The achieved sum-rate is compared with that of a very simple scheme that selects the antennas with the highest received power. The power-based scheme gives performance close to the convex optimization scheme, for the measured channels. This observation indicates a potential for significant reductions of massive MIMO<br/><br>
implementation complexity, by reducing the number of RF chains and performing antenna selection using simple algorithms.},
  author       = {Gao, Xiang and Edfors, Ove and Tufvesson, Fredrik and Larsson, Erik G.},
  issn         = {0090-6778},
  keyword      = {large-scale fading,spatial diversity,multi-user MIMO,Massive MIMO,antenna selection,channel measurements,channel capacity,sum-rate,linear precoding,5G},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {3917--3928},
  publisher    = {IEEE--Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.},
  series       = {IEEE Transactions on Communications},
  title        = {Massive MIMO in Real Propagation Environments: Do All Antennas Contribute Equally?},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCOMM.2015.2462350},
  volume       = {63},
  year         = {2015},
}