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Alkaliphiles : The Versatile Tools in Biotechnology

Mamo, Gashaw LU and Mattiasson, Bo LU (2020) In Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology 172. p.1-51
Abstract

The extreme environments within the biosphere are inhabited by organisms known as extremophiles. Lately, these organisms are attracting a great deal of interest from researchers and industrialists. The motive behind this attraction is mainly related to the desire for new and efficient products of biotechnological importance and human curiosity of understanding nature. Organisms living in common “human-friendly” environments have served humanity for a very long time, and this has led to exhaustion of the low-hanging “fruits,” a phenomenon witnessed by the diminishing rate of new discoveries. For example, acquiring novel products such as drugs from the traditional sources has become difficult and expensive. Such challenges together with... (More)

The extreme environments within the biosphere are inhabited by organisms known as extremophiles. Lately, these organisms are attracting a great deal of interest from researchers and industrialists. The motive behind this attraction is mainly related to the desire for new and efficient products of biotechnological importance and human curiosity of understanding nature. Organisms living in common “human-friendly” environments have served humanity for a very long time, and this has led to exhaustion of the low-hanging “fruits,” a phenomenon witnessed by the diminishing rate of new discoveries. For example, acquiring novel products such as drugs from the traditional sources has become difficult and expensive. Such challenges together with the basic research interest have brought the exploration of previously neglected or unknown groups of organisms. Extremophiles are among these groups which have been brought to focus and garnering a growing importance in biotechnology. In the last few decades, numerous extremophiles and their products have got their ways into industrial, agricultural, environmental, pharmaceutical, and other biotechnological applications. Alkaliphiles, organisms which thrive optimally at or above pH 9, are one of the most important classes of extremophiles. To flourish in their extreme habitats, alkaliphiles evolved impressive structural and functional adaptations. The high pH adaptation gave unique biocatalysts that are operationally stable at elevated pH and several other novel products with immense biotechnological application potential. Advances in the cultivation techniques, success in gene cloning and expression, metabolic engineering, metagenomics, and other related techniques are significantly contributing to expand the application horizon of these remarkable organisms of the ‘bizarre’ world. Studies have shown the enormous potential of alkaliphiles in numerous biotechnological applications. Although it seems just the beginning, some fantastic strides are already made in tapping this potential. This work tries to review some of the prominent applications of alkaliphiles by focusing such as on their enzymes, metabolites, exopolysaccharides, and biosurfactants. Moreover, the chapter strives to assesses the whole-cell applications of alkaliphiles including in biomining, food and feed supplementation, bioconstruction, microbial fuel cell, biofuel production, and bioremediation.

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Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Antibiotics, Biocatalysis, Bioconstruction, Biofuel, Biomining, Bioremediation, Biosurfactants, Carotenoids, Cyanobacteria, Enzymes, Extremolytes, Extremophiles, Extremozymes, High pH adaptation, Secondary metabolites, Siderophores
host publication
Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology
series title
Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology
volume
172
pages
51 pages
publisher
Springer Gabler
external identifiers
  • scopus:85087321142
  • pmid:32342125
ISSN
1616-8542
0724-6145
DOI
10.1007/10_2020_126
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
78ffef2b-4627-47d9-9c8d-faa4311b428b
date added to LUP
2020-07-17 10:51:12
date last changed
2020-09-16 04:47:48
@inbook{78ffef2b-4627-47d9-9c8d-faa4311b428b,
  abstract     = {<p>The extreme environments within the biosphere are inhabited by organisms known as extremophiles. Lately, these organisms are attracting a great deal of interest from researchers and industrialists. The motive behind this attraction is mainly related to the desire for new and efficient products of biotechnological importance and human curiosity of understanding nature. Organisms living in common “human-friendly” environments have served humanity for a very long time, and this has led to exhaustion of the low-hanging “fruits,” a phenomenon witnessed by the diminishing rate of new discoveries. For example, acquiring novel products such as drugs from the traditional sources has become difficult and expensive. Such challenges together with the basic research interest have brought the exploration of previously neglected or unknown groups of organisms. Extremophiles are among these groups which have been brought to focus and garnering a growing importance in biotechnology. In the last few decades, numerous extremophiles and their products have got their ways into industrial, agricultural, environmental, pharmaceutical, and other biotechnological applications. Alkaliphiles, organisms which thrive optimally at or above pH 9, are one of the most important classes of extremophiles. To flourish in their extreme habitats, alkaliphiles evolved impressive structural and functional adaptations. The high pH adaptation gave unique biocatalysts that are operationally stable at elevated pH and several other novel products with immense biotechnological application potential. Advances in the cultivation techniques, success in gene cloning and expression, metabolic engineering, metagenomics, and other related techniques are significantly contributing to expand the application horizon of these remarkable organisms of the ‘bizarre’ world. Studies have shown the enormous potential of alkaliphiles in numerous biotechnological applications. Although it seems just the beginning, some fantastic strides are already made in tapping this potential. This work tries to review some of the prominent applications of alkaliphiles by focusing such as on their enzymes, metabolites, exopolysaccharides, and biosurfactants. Moreover, the chapter strives to assesses the whole-cell applications of alkaliphiles including in biomining, food and feed supplementation, bioconstruction, microbial fuel cell, biofuel production, and bioremediation.</p>},
  author       = {Mamo, Gashaw and Mattiasson, Bo},
  booktitle    = {Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology},
  issn         = {1616-8542},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {1--51},
  publisher    = {Springer Gabler},
  series       = {Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology},
  title        = {Alkaliphiles : The Versatile Tools in Biotechnology},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/10_2020_126},
  doi          = {10.1007/10_2020_126},
  volume       = {172},
  year         = {2020},
}