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Removal of Prymnesium parvum (Haptophyceae) and its toxins using clay minerals

Sengco, M. R.; Hagstrom, J. A.; Graneli, Edna LU and Anderson, D. M. (2005) In Harmful Algae 4(2). p.261-274
Abstract
Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the ability of several clay minerals from Sweden to remove the fish-killing microalga, Prymnesium parvum Carter, from suspension. In their commercial form (i.e. after incineration at 400degreesC), seawater slurries (salinity = 26) of the three minerals tested were generally ineffective at removing P. parvum from culture within a range of 0.01 to 0.50g/L, and after 2.5 h of flocculation and settling. Dry bentonite (SWE1) displayed the highest removal efficiency (RE) at 17.5%, with 0.50g/L. Illite (SWE3) averaged only 7.5% RE between 0.10 to 0.50g/L, while kaolinite (SWE2) kept the cells suspended instead of removing them. Brief mixing of the clay-cell suspension after SWE1 addition improved... (More)
Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the ability of several clay minerals from Sweden to remove the fish-killing microalga, Prymnesium parvum Carter, from suspension. In their commercial form (i.e. after incineration at 400degreesC), seawater slurries (salinity = 26) of the three minerals tested were generally ineffective at removing P. parvum from culture within a range of 0.01 to 0.50g/L, and after 2.5 h of flocculation and settling. Dry bentonite (SWE1) displayed the highest removal efficiency (RE) at 17.5%, with 0.50g/L. Illite (SWE3) averaged only 7.5% RE between 0.10 to 0.50g/L, while kaolinite (SWE2) kept the cells suspended instead of removing them. Brief mixing of the clay-cell suspension after SWE1 addition improved RE by a factor of 2.5 (i.e. 49% at 0.50 g/L), relative to no mixing. The addition of polyaluminum chloride (PAC, at 5 ppm) to 0.50 g/L SWE1 also improved RE to 50% relative to SWE1 alone, but only minor improvements in RE were seen with SWE2 and SWE2 combined with PAC. In further experiments, P. parvum grown in NP-replete conditions were removed in greater numbers than cells in N- or P-limited cultures, at 0.10-0.25 g/L of SWE1 and 5 ppm PAC. With 0.50 g/L, RE converged at 40% for all three culture conditions. The toxin concentration of NP-replete cultures decreased from 24.2 to 9.2 muLg/mL (60% toxin RE) with 0.10-0.50 g/L SWE1 treatment and 5 ppm PAC. A strong correlation was found between cell and toxin RE (r(2) = 0.995). For N-limited cultures, toxin RE ranged between 21 and 87% with the same clay/PAC concentrations, although the correlation between cell and toxin removal was more moderate (r(2) = 0.746) than for NP-replete conditions. Interestingly, the toxin concentration within the clay-cell pellet increased dramatically after treatment, suggesting that clay addition may stimulate toxin production in N-stressed cells. For P-limited cultures, toxin concentration also decreased following clay/PAC treatment (i.e. 36% toxin RE), but toxin removal was poorly correlated to cell removal (r(2) = 0.462). To determine whether incineration affected SWE1's removal ability, a sample of its wet, unprocessed form was tested. The RE of wet bentonite (SWE4) was slightly better than that of SWE1 (31% versus 17%, respectively, at 0.50 g/L), but when 5 ppm PAC was added, RE increased from 10 to 64% with 0.05 g/L of SWE4, and increased further to 77% with 0.50 g/L. There were no significant differences in RE among NP-replete, N-limited and P-limited cultures using PAC-treated SWE4. Finally, RE varied with P. parvum concentration, reaching a maximum level at the lowest cell concentration (1 x 10(3) cells/mL): 100% RE with 0.10 and 0.50 g/L SWE4 + 5 ppm PAC.. RE dropped as cell concentration increased to 1 x 10(4) and 5 x 10(4) cells/mL, but rose again when concentration increased to 1 x 10(5) cells/mL, the concentration used routinely for the removal experiments above. Based on these results, SWE4 with PAC was the most effective mineral sample against P. parvum. Overall, these studies demonstrated that clay flocculation can be effective at removing P. parvum and its toxins only under certain treatment conditions with respect to cell concentration, clay type and concentration, and physiological status. (Less)
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Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
categories
Higher Education
in
Harmful Algae
volume
4
issue
2
pages
261 - 274
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • scopus:10944256466
ISSN
1878-1470
DOI
10.1016/j.hal.2004.05.001
language
English
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no
id
df1210d7-8024-4920-88b2-8a9803bd405d (old id 7994052)
date added to LUP
2015-09-29 13:18:20
date last changed
2017-10-22 03:33:33
@article{df1210d7-8024-4920-88b2-8a9803bd405d,
  abstract     = {Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the ability of several clay minerals from Sweden to remove the fish-killing microalga, Prymnesium parvum Carter, from suspension. In their commercial form (i.e. after incineration at 400degreesC), seawater slurries (salinity = 26) of the three minerals tested were generally ineffective at removing P. parvum from culture within a range of 0.01 to 0.50g/L, and after 2.5 h of flocculation and settling. Dry bentonite (SWE1) displayed the highest removal efficiency (RE) at 17.5%, with 0.50g/L. Illite (SWE3) averaged only 7.5% RE between 0.10 to 0.50g/L, while kaolinite (SWE2) kept the cells suspended instead of removing them. Brief mixing of the clay-cell suspension after SWE1 addition improved RE by a factor of 2.5 (i.e. 49% at 0.50 g/L), relative to no mixing. The addition of polyaluminum chloride (PAC, at 5 ppm) to 0.50 g/L SWE1 also improved RE to 50% relative to SWE1 alone, but only minor improvements in RE were seen with SWE2 and SWE2 combined with PAC. In further experiments, P. parvum grown in NP-replete conditions were removed in greater numbers than cells in N- or P-limited cultures, at 0.10-0.25 g/L of SWE1 and 5 ppm PAC. With 0.50 g/L, RE converged at 40% for all three culture conditions. The toxin concentration of NP-replete cultures decreased from 24.2 to 9.2 muLg/mL (60% toxin RE) with 0.10-0.50 g/L SWE1 treatment and 5 ppm PAC. A strong correlation was found between cell and toxin RE (r(2) = 0.995). For N-limited cultures, toxin RE ranged between 21 and 87% with the same clay/PAC concentrations, although the correlation between cell and toxin removal was more moderate (r(2) = 0.746) than for NP-replete conditions. Interestingly, the toxin concentration within the clay-cell pellet increased dramatically after treatment, suggesting that clay addition may stimulate toxin production in N-stressed cells. For P-limited cultures, toxin concentration also decreased following clay/PAC treatment (i.e. 36% toxin RE), but toxin removal was poorly correlated to cell removal (r(2) = 0.462). To determine whether incineration affected SWE1's removal ability, a sample of its wet, unprocessed form was tested. The RE of wet bentonite (SWE4) was slightly better than that of SWE1 (31% versus 17%, respectively, at 0.50 g/L), but when 5 ppm PAC was added, RE increased from 10 to 64% with 0.05 g/L of SWE4, and increased further to 77% with 0.50 g/L. There were no significant differences in RE among NP-replete, N-limited and P-limited cultures using PAC-treated SWE4. Finally, RE varied with P. parvum concentration, reaching a maximum level at the lowest cell concentration (1 x 10(3) cells/mL): 100% RE with 0.10 and 0.50 g/L SWE4 + 5 ppm PAC.. RE dropped as cell concentration increased to 1 x 10(4) and 5 x 10(4) cells/mL, but rose again when concentration increased to 1 x 10(5) cells/mL, the concentration used routinely for the removal experiments above. Based on these results, SWE4 with PAC was the most effective mineral sample against P. parvum. Overall, these studies demonstrated that clay flocculation can be effective at removing P. parvum and its toxins only under certain treatment conditions with respect to cell concentration, clay type and concentration, and physiological status.},
  author       = {Sengco, M. R. and Hagstrom, J. A. and Graneli, Edna and Anderson, D. M.},
  issn         = {1878-1470},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {261--274},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Harmful Algae},
  title        = {Removal of Prymnesium parvum (Haptophyceae) and its toxins using clay minerals},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2004.05.001},
  volume       = {4},
  year         = {2005},
}