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Structural mouthpart interaction evolved already in the earliest lineages of insects

Blanke, Alexander; Rühr, Peter T.; Mokso, Rajmund LU ; Villanueva-Perez, Pablo; Wilde, Fabian; Stampanoni, Marco; Uesugi, Kentaro; Machida, Ryuichiro and Misof, Bernhard (2015) In Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 282(1812).
Abstract

In butterflies, bees, flies and true bugs specific mouthparts are in close contact or even fused to enable piercing, sucking or sponging of particular food sources. The common phenomenon behind these mouthpart types is a com-plex composed of several consecutive mouthparts which structurally interact during food uptake. The single mouthparts are thus only functional in con-junction with other adjacent mouthparts, which is fundamentally different to biting-chewing. It is, however, unclear when structural mouthpart inter-action (SMI) evolved since this principle obviously occurred multiple times independently in several extant and extinct winged insect groups. Here, we report a new type of SMI in two of the earliest wingless hexapod... (More)

In butterflies, bees, flies and true bugs specific mouthparts are in close contact or even fused to enable piercing, sucking or sponging of particular food sources. The common phenomenon behind these mouthpart types is a com-plex composed of several consecutive mouthparts which structurally interact during food uptake. The single mouthparts are thus only functional in con-junction with other adjacent mouthparts, which is fundamentally different to biting-chewing. It is, however, unclear when structural mouthpart inter-action (SMI) evolved since this principle obviously occurred multiple times independently in several extant and extinct winged insect groups. Here, we report a new type of SMI in two of the earliest wingless hexapod lineages— Diplura and Collembola. We found that the mandible and maxilla interact with each other via an articulatory stud at the dorsal side of the maxillary stipes, and they are furthermore supported by structures of the hypopharynx and head capsule. These interactions are crucial stabilizing elements during food uptake. The presence of SMI in these ancestrally wingless insects, and its absence in those crustacean groups probably ancestral to insects, indicates that SMI is a groundplan apomorphy of insects. Our results thus contradict the currently established view of insect mouthpart evolution that biting-chewing mouthparts without any form of SMI are the ancestral configuration. Further-more, SMIs occur in the earliest insects in a high anatomical variety. SMIs in stemgroup representatives of insects may have triggered efficient exploitation and fast adaptation to new terrestrial food sources much earlier than previously supposed.

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author
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
keywords
Collembola, Diplura, Entognathy, Functional morphology, MicroCT
in
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
volume
282
issue
1812
publisher
Royal Society
external identifiers
  • scopus:84937838992
ISSN
0962-8452
DOI
10.1098/rspb.2015.1033
language
English
LU publication?
no
id
7d3ba40e-7e30-4240-893d-d6feadcad42c
date added to LUP
2017-09-19 14:38:31
date last changed
2017-09-26 16:41:34
@article{7d3ba40e-7e30-4240-893d-d6feadcad42c,
  abstract     = {<p>In butterflies, bees, flies and true bugs specific mouthparts are in close contact or even fused to enable piercing, sucking or sponging of particular food sources. The common phenomenon behind these mouthpart types is a com-plex composed of several consecutive mouthparts which structurally interact during food uptake. The single mouthparts are thus only functional in con-junction with other adjacent mouthparts, which is fundamentally different to biting-chewing. It is, however, unclear when structural mouthpart inter-action (SMI) evolved since this principle obviously occurred multiple times independently in several extant and extinct winged insect groups. Here, we report a new type of SMI in two of the earliest wingless hexapod lineages— Diplura and Collembola. We found that the mandible and maxilla interact with each other via an articulatory stud at the dorsal side of the maxillary stipes, and they are furthermore supported by structures of the hypopharynx and head capsule. These interactions are crucial stabilizing elements during food uptake. The presence of SMI in these ancestrally wingless insects, and its absence in those crustacean groups probably ancestral to insects, indicates that SMI is a groundplan apomorphy of insects. Our results thus contradict the currently established view of insect mouthpart evolution that biting-chewing mouthparts without any form of SMI are the ancestral configuration. Further-more, SMIs occur in the earliest insects in a high anatomical variety. SMIs in stemgroup representatives of insects may have triggered efficient exploitation and fast adaptation to new terrestrial food sources much earlier than previously supposed.</p>},
  articleno    = {20151033},
  author       = {Blanke, Alexander and Rühr, Peter T. and Mokso, Rajmund and Villanueva-Perez, Pablo and Wilde, Fabian and Stampanoni, Marco and Uesugi, Kentaro and Machida, Ryuichiro and Misof, Bernhard},
  issn         = {0962-8452},
  keyword      = {Collembola,Diplura,Entognathy,Functional morphology,MicroCT},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1812},
  publisher    = {Royal Society},
  series       = {Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences},
  title        = {Structural mouthpart interaction evolved already in the earliest lineages of insects},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2015.1033},
  volume       = {282},
  year         = {2015},
}