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Creation of quark–gluon plasma droplets with three distinct geometries

, ; Aidala, C.; Oskarsson, Anders LU ; Silvermyr, David LU and Zou, L. (2018) In Nature Physics
Abstract
Experimental studies of the collisions of heavy nuclei at relativistic energies have established the properties of the quark–gluon plasma (QGP), a state of hot, dense nuclear matter in which quarks and gluons are not bound into hadrons1–4. In this state, matter behaves as a nearly inviscid fluid5 that efficiently translates initial spatial anisotropies into correlated momentum anisotropies among the particles produced, creating a common velocity field pattern known as collective flow. In recent years, comparable momentum anisotropies have been measured in small-system proton–proton (p+p) and proton–nucleus (p+A) collisions, despite expectations that the volume and lifetime of the medium produced would be too small to form a QGP. Here we... (More)
Experimental studies of the collisions of heavy nuclei at relativistic energies have established the properties of the quark–gluon plasma (QGP), a state of hot, dense nuclear matter in which quarks and gluons are not bound into hadrons1–4. In this state, matter behaves as a nearly inviscid fluid5 that efficiently translates initial spatial anisotropies into correlated momentum anisotropies among the particles produced, creating a common velocity field pattern known as collective flow. In recent years, comparable momentum anisotropies have been measured in small-system proton–proton (p+p) and proton–nucleus (p+A) collisions, despite expectations that the volume and lifetime of the medium produced would be too small to form a QGP. Here we report on the observation of elliptic and triangular flow patterns of charged particles produced in proton–gold (p+Au), deuteron–gold (d+Au) and helium–gold (3He+Au) collisions at a nucleon–nucleon centre-of-mass energy sNN = 200 GeV. The unique combination of three distinct initial geometries and two flow patterns provides unprecedented model discrimination. Hydrodynamical models, which include the formation of a short-lived QGP droplet, provide the best simultaneous description of these measurements. © 2018, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited. (Less)
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Nature Physics
publisher
Nature Publishing Group
external identifiers
  • scopus:85058183273
ISSN
1745-2473
DOI
10.1038/s41567-018-0360-0
language
English
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yes
id
8017b71f-6acb-4810-86b3-6f5e019c6da2
date added to LUP
2019-01-09 15:12:52
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2019-02-20 11:42:19
@article{8017b71f-6acb-4810-86b3-6f5e019c6da2,
  abstract     = {Experimental studies of the collisions of heavy nuclei at relativistic energies have established the properties of the quark–gluon plasma (QGP), a state of hot, dense nuclear matter in which quarks and gluons are not bound into hadrons1–4. In this state, matter behaves as a nearly inviscid fluid5 that efficiently translates initial spatial anisotropies into correlated momentum anisotropies among the particles produced, creating a common velocity field pattern known as collective flow. In recent years, comparable momentum anisotropies have been measured in small-system proton–proton (p+p) and proton–nucleus (p+A) collisions, despite expectations that the volume and lifetime of the medium produced would be too small to form a QGP. Here we report on the observation of elliptic and triangular flow patterns of charged particles produced in proton–gold (p+Au), deuteron–gold (d+Au) and helium–gold (3He+Au) collisions at a nucleon–nucleon centre-of-mass energy sNN = 200 GeV. The unique combination of three distinct initial geometries and two flow patterns provides unprecedented model discrimination. Hydrodynamical models, which include the formation of a short-lived QGP droplet, provide the best simultaneous description of these measurements. © 2018, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.},
  author       = {,  and Aidala, C. and Oskarsson, Anders and Silvermyr, David and Zou, L.},
  issn         = {1745-2473},
  language     = {eng},
  publisher    = {Nature Publishing Group},
  series       = {Nature Physics},
  title        = {Creation of quark–gluon plasma droplets with three distinct geometries},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41567-018-0360-0},
  year         = {2018},
}