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Cytoskeletal Regulation During Embryonic Development in Drosophila melanogaster

Padash, Mojgan LU (2006) In Lund University, Faculty of Medicine Doctoral Dissertation Series 2006:109.
Abstract
The development of multicellular organisms is associated with extensive rearrangements of cells and tissues. The driving force for these rearrangements is generated by the cell's actin cytoskeleton. During many morphogenetic processes dynamic rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton is regulated by small GTPases of the Rho-family. These GTPases are highly conserved throughout the animal kingdom and act as bipolar molecular switches that are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). The broad tissue distribution of Rho-family GTPases and the presence of a large number of RhoGEFs in the genome have led to the hypothesis that specific aspects of Rho-function might be regulated by specific RhoGEFs in a tissue-specific manner.... (More)
The development of multicellular organisms is associated with extensive rearrangements of cells and tissues. The driving force for these rearrangements is generated by the cell's actin cytoskeleton. During many morphogenetic processes dynamic rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton is regulated by small GTPases of the Rho-family. These GTPases are highly conserved throughout the animal kingdom and act as bipolar molecular switches that are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). The broad tissue distribution of Rho-family GTPases and the presence of a large number of RhoGEFs in the genome have led to the hypothesis that specific aspects of Rho-function might be regulated by specific RhoGEFs in a tissue-specific manner. DRhoGEF2, which is the Drosophila ortholog of the human RGS-domain-containing RhoGEFs, PDZ-RhoGEF, Leukemia associated RhoGEF (LARG) and P115 RhoGEF, has previously been shown to regulate the coordinated cell shape changes that drive the invagination of mesodermal and endodermal germlayers during gastrulation. The tissue distribution of DRhoGEF2 protein suggested a requirement of DRhoGEF2 in a broad range of tissues during embryonic development. This thesis describes the role of DRhoGEF2 during early embryonic development in processes such as metaphase furrow formation, pole cell formation and blastoderm cellularization as well as its later function in the formation of segmental grooves. All processes requiring DRhoGEF2 function involve the contraction of Actin-Myosin fibers and together with previous studies the presented results suggest that DRhoGEF2 regulates the activity of the small GTPase Rho1 during morphogenetic movements that require the contractile activity of actomyosin networks. (Less)
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author
supervisor
opponent
  • Professor Knust, Elisabeth, Institut für Genetik, Heinrich-Heine Universität Düsseldorf. Germany
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Naturvetenskap, Natural science, DRhoGEF2, Actin cytoskeleton, Rho GTPase
in
Lund University, Faculty of Medicine Doctoral Dissertation Series
volume
2006:109
pages
124 pages
publisher
Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund Univeristy
defense location
Segerfalksalen, Wallenberg Neurocentrum, Sölvegatan 17, Lund
defense date
2006-10-12 13:00
ISSN
1652-8220
ISBN
91-85559-33-4
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
81d2cac7-2437-45c7-b14a-04c3e2f1abef (old id 547355)
date added to LUP
2007-09-17 15:56:13
date last changed
2018-05-29 09:38:36
@phdthesis{81d2cac7-2437-45c7-b14a-04c3e2f1abef,
  abstract     = {The development of multicellular organisms is associated with extensive rearrangements of cells and tissues. The driving force for these rearrangements is generated by the cell's actin cytoskeleton. During many morphogenetic processes dynamic rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton is regulated by small GTPases of the Rho-family. These GTPases are highly conserved throughout the animal kingdom and act as bipolar molecular switches that are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). The broad tissue distribution of Rho-family GTPases and the presence of a large number of RhoGEFs in the genome have led to the hypothesis that specific aspects of Rho-function might be regulated by specific RhoGEFs in a tissue-specific manner. DRhoGEF2, which is the Drosophila ortholog of the human RGS-domain-containing RhoGEFs, PDZ-RhoGEF, Leukemia associated RhoGEF (LARG) and P115 RhoGEF, has previously been shown to regulate the coordinated cell shape changes that drive the invagination of mesodermal and endodermal germlayers during gastrulation. The tissue distribution of DRhoGEF2 protein suggested a requirement of DRhoGEF2 in a broad range of tissues during embryonic development. This thesis describes the role of DRhoGEF2 during early embryonic development in processes such as metaphase furrow formation, pole cell formation and blastoderm cellularization as well as its later function in the formation of segmental grooves. All processes requiring DRhoGEF2 function involve the contraction of Actin-Myosin fibers and together with previous studies the presented results suggest that DRhoGEF2 regulates the activity of the small GTPase Rho1 during morphogenetic movements that require the contractile activity of actomyosin networks.},
  author       = {Padash, Mojgan},
  isbn         = {91-85559-33-4},
  issn         = {1652-8220},
  keyword      = {Naturvetenskap,Natural science,DRhoGEF2,Actin cytoskeleton,Rho GTPase},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {124},
  publisher    = {Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund Univeristy},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {Lund University, Faculty of Medicine Doctoral Dissertation Series},
  title        = {Cytoskeletal Regulation During Embryonic Development in Drosophila melanogaster},
  volume       = {2006:109},
  year         = {2006},
}