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The potential for disruptive selection on growth rates across genetically influenced alternative reproductive tactics

Morris, M. R.; Friebertshauser, R. J.; Rios-Cardenas, O.; Liotta, M. N. and Abbott, J. K. LU (2016) In Evolutionary Ecology 30(3). p.519-533
Abstract

A trade-off between survival to sexual maturity and mating success is common across alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs), and can lead to tactical disruptive selection on shared traits (i.e. positive selection gradient in one tactic, and negative selection gradient in another). We were interested in examining the theoretical possibility of tactical disruptive selection on intrinsic growth rate. The male ARTs in Xiphophorus multilineatus express two distinct life histories: “courters” optimize mating success by maturing later at larger size and coaxing females to mate, while “sneakers” optimize survival to sexual maturity by maturing earlier at a smaller size, using both coaxing and coercive mating behaviors. In addition to... (More)

A trade-off between survival to sexual maturity and mating success is common across alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs), and can lead to tactical disruptive selection on shared traits (i.e. positive selection gradient in one tactic, and negative selection gradient in another). We were interested in examining the theoretical possibility of tactical disruptive selection on intrinsic growth rate. The male ARTs in Xiphophorus multilineatus express two distinct life histories: “courters” optimize mating success by maturing later at larger size and coaxing females to mate, while “sneakers” optimize survival to sexual maturity by maturing earlier at a smaller size, using both coaxing and coercive mating behaviors. In addition to differences in mating behaviors, body length, body depth, and the pigment pattern vertical bars, courter males grow faster than sneaker males. We present a new hypothesis for differences in growth rates between genetically influenced ARTs. The “growth-maturity optimization” hypothesis suggests that ARTs with differences in the probability of surviving to sexual maturity may have different optimal growth rates, leading to tactical disruptive selection. We also present a simple model to suggest that when considering both a cost and benefit to faster growth, tactical disruptive selection on growth rates is theoretically possible. In our model, the value that determines when tactical disruptive selection on growth rate will occur is the increase in probability of survival to sexual maturity gained through faster growth multiplied by the cost of faster growth (reduced longevity). Finally, we present empirical evidence to support the prediction that faster growth has a cost in X. multilineatus: in a controlled laboratory setting, courter males that did not survive 1.2 years past sexual maturity grew faster as juveniles (14–70 days) than those that survived.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Alternative reproductive tactics, Melanincortin-4 receptor gene, Mortality growth trade-off, Tactical disruptive selection, Xiphophorus, “Growth-maturity optimization” hypothesis
in
Evolutionary Ecology
volume
30
issue
3
pages
15 pages
publisher
Springer
external identifiers
  • Scopus:84958770003
  • WOS:000379519700010
ISSN
0269-7653
DOI
10.1007/s10682-016-9823-x
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
83f0a46e-fb67-42a1-b479-ae12a9c891d6
date added to LUP
2016-05-19 14:48:33
date last changed
2017-01-01 08:26:33
@article{83f0a46e-fb67-42a1-b479-ae12a9c891d6,
  abstract     = {<p>A trade-off between survival to sexual maturity and mating success is common across alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs), and can lead to tactical disruptive selection on shared traits (i.e. positive selection gradient in one tactic, and negative selection gradient in another). We were interested in examining the theoretical possibility of tactical disruptive selection on intrinsic growth rate. The male ARTs in Xiphophorus multilineatus express two distinct life histories: “courters” optimize mating success by maturing later at larger size and coaxing females to mate, while “sneakers” optimize survival to sexual maturity by maturing earlier at a smaller size, using both coaxing and coercive mating behaviors. In addition to differences in mating behaviors, body length, body depth, and the pigment pattern vertical bars, courter males grow faster than sneaker males. We present a new hypothesis for differences in growth rates between genetically influenced ARTs. The “growth-maturity optimization” hypothesis suggests that ARTs with differences in the probability of surviving to sexual maturity may have different optimal growth rates, leading to tactical disruptive selection. We also present a simple model to suggest that when considering both a cost and benefit to faster growth, tactical disruptive selection on growth rates is theoretically possible. In our model, the value that determines when tactical disruptive selection on growth rate will occur is the increase in probability of survival to sexual maturity gained through faster growth multiplied by the cost of faster growth (reduced longevity). Finally, we present empirical evidence to support the prediction that faster growth has a cost in X. multilineatus: in a controlled laboratory setting, courter males that did not survive 1.2 years past sexual maturity grew faster as juveniles (14–70 days) than those that survived.</p>},
  author       = {Morris, M. R. and Friebertshauser, R. J. and Rios-Cardenas, O. and Liotta, M. N. and Abbott, J. K.},
  issn         = {0269-7653},
  keyword      = {Alternative reproductive tactics,Melanincortin-4 receptor gene,Mortality growth trade-off,Tactical disruptive selection,Xiphophorus,“Growth-maturity optimization” hypothesis},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {06},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {519--533},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {Evolutionary Ecology},
  title        = {The potential for disruptive selection on growth rates across genetically influenced alternative reproductive tactics},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10682-016-9823-x},
  volume       = {30},
  year         = {2016},
}