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Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea: Biogeochemical Cycles, Benthic Fauna, and Management

Carstensen, Jacob ; Conley, Daniel LU ; Bonsdorff, Erik ; Gustafsson, Bo G. ; Hietanen, Susanna ; Janas, Urzsula ; Jilbert, Tom ; Maximov, Alexey ; Norkko, Alf and Norkko, Joanna , et al. (2014) In Ambio: a Journal of Human Environment 43(1). p.26-36
Abstract
Hypoxia has occurred intermittently over the Holocene in the Baltic Sea, but the recent expansion from less than 10 000 km(2) before 1950 to > 60 000 km(2) since 2000 is mainly caused by enhanced nutrient inputs from land and atmosphere. With worsening hypoxia, the role of sediments changes from nitrogen removal to nitrogen release as ammonium. At present, denitrification in the water column and sediments is equally important. Phosphorus is currently buried in sediments mainly in organic form, with an additional contribution of reduced Fe-phosphate minerals in the deep anoxic basins. Upon the transition to oxic conditions, a significant proportion of the organic phosphorus will be remineralized, with the phosphorus then being bound to... (More)
Hypoxia has occurred intermittently over the Holocene in the Baltic Sea, but the recent expansion from less than 10 000 km(2) before 1950 to > 60 000 km(2) since 2000 is mainly caused by enhanced nutrient inputs from land and atmosphere. With worsening hypoxia, the role of sediments changes from nitrogen removal to nitrogen release as ammonium. At present, denitrification in the water column and sediments is equally important. Phosphorus is currently buried in sediments mainly in organic form, with an additional contribution of reduced Fe-phosphate minerals in the deep anoxic basins. Upon the transition to oxic conditions, a significant proportion of the organic phosphorus will be remineralized, with the phosphorus then being bound to iron oxides. This iron-oxide bound phosphorus is readily released to the water column upon the onset of hypoxia again. Important ecosystems services carried out by the benthic fauna, including biogeochemical feedback-loops and biomass production, are also lost with hypoxia. The results provide quantitative knowledge of nutrient release and recycling processes under various environmental conditions in support of decision support tools underlying the Baltic Sea Action Plan. (Less)
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organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Climate change, Ecosystem recovery, Ecosystem services, Eutrophication, Nutrient management, Regime shift
in
Ambio: a Journal of Human Environment
volume
43
issue
1
pages
26 - 36
publisher
Springer
external identifiers
  • wos:000329831800003
  • scopus:84898404596
  • pmid:24414802
ISSN
0044-7447
DOI
10.1007/s13280-013-0474-7
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
859feaa4-7754-4439-8675-55de990093db (old id 4318866)
date added to LUP
2016-04-01 14:45:27
date last changed
2020-10-07 03:57:46
@article{859feaa4-7754-4439-8675-55de990093db,
  abstract     = {Hypoxia has occurred intermittently over the Holocene in the Baltic Sea, but the recent expansion from less than 10 000 km(2) before 1950 to > 60 000 km(2) since 2000 is mainly caused by enhanced nutrient inputs from land and atmosphere. With worsening hypoxia, the role of sediments changes from nitrogen removal to nitrogen release as ammonium. At present, denitrification in the water column and sediments is equally important. Phosphorus is currently buried in sediments mainly in organic form, with an additional contribution of reduced Fe-phosphate minerals in the deep anoxic basins. Upon the transition to oxic conditions, a significant proportion of the organic phosphorus will be remineralized, with the phosphorus then being bound to iron oxides. This iron-oxide bound phosphorus is readily released to the water column upon the onset of hypoxia again. Important ecosystems services carried out by the benthic fauna, including biogeochemical feedback-loops and biomass production, are also lost with hypoxia. The results provide quantitative knowledge of nutrient release and recycling processes under various environmental conditions in support of decision support tools underlying the Baltic Sea Action Plan.},
  author       = {Carstensen, Jacob and Conley, Daniel and Bonsdorff, Erik and Gustafsson, Bo G. and Hietanen, Susanna and Janas, Urzsula and Jilbert, Tom and Maximov, Alexey and Norkko, Alf and Norkko, Joanna and Reed, Daniel C. and Slomp, Caroline P. and Timmermann, Karen and Voss, Maren},
  issn         = {0044-7447},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {26--36},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {Ambio: a Journal of Human Environment},
  title        = {Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea: Biogeochemical Cycles, Benthic Fauna, and Management},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13280-013-0474-7},
  doi          = {10.1007/s13280-013-0474-7},
  volume       = {43},
  year         = {2014},
}