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Planar dGEMRIC Maps May Aid Imaging Assessment of Cartilage Damage in Femoroacetabular Impingement

Bulat, Evgeny; Bixby, Sarah D.; Siversson, Carl LU ; Kalish, Leslie A.; Warfield, Simon K. and Kim, Young-Jo (2016) In Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 474(2). p.467-478
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3-D) delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) helps quantify biochemical changes in articular cartilage that correlate with early-stage osteoarthritis. However, dGEMRIC analysis is performed slice by slice, limiting the potential of 3-D data to give an overall impression of cartilage biochemistry. We previously developed a computational algorithm to produce unfolded, or "planar," dGEMRIC maps of acetabular cartilage, but have neither assessed their application nor determined whether MRI-based grading of cartilage damage or dGEMRIC measurements predict intraoperative findings in hips with symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). (1) Does imaging-based assessment of acetabular cartilage damage... (More)
Three-dimensional (3-D) delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) helps quantify biochemical changes in articular cartilage that correlate with early-stage osteoarthritis. However, dGEMRIC analysis is performed slice by slice, limiting the potential of 3-D data to give an overall impression of cartilage biochemistry. We previously developed a computational algorithm to produce unfolded, or "planar," dGEMRIC maps of acetabular cartilage, but have neither assessed their application nor determined whether MRI-based grading of cartilage damage or dGEMRIC measurements predict intraoperative findings in hips with symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). (1) Does imaging-based assessment of acetabular cartilage damage correlate with intraoperative findings in hips with symptomatic FAI? (2) Does the planar dGEMRIC map improve this correlation? (3) Does the planar map improve the correlation between the dGEMRIC index and MRI-based grading of cartilage damage in hips with symptomatic FAI? (4) Does the planar map improve imaging-based evaluation time for hips with symptomatic FAI? We retrospectively studied 47 hips of 45 patients with symptomatic FAI who underwent hip surgery between 2009 and 2013 and had a 1.5-T 3-D dGEMRIC scan within 6 months preoperatively. Our cohort included 25 males and 20 females with a mean +/- SD age at surgery of 29 +/- 11 years. Planar dGEMRIC maps were generated from isotropic, sagittal oblique TrueFISP and T1 sequences. A pediatric musculoskeletal radiologist with experience in hip MRI evaluated studies using radially reformatted sequences. For six acetabular subregions (anterior-peripheral [AP]; anterior-central [AC]; superior-peripheral [SP]; superior-central [SC]; posterior-peripheral [PP]; posterior-central [PC]), modified Outerbridge cartilage damage grades were recorded and region-of-interest T1 averages (the dGEMRIC index) were measured. Beck's intraoperative cartilage damage grades were compared with the Outerbridge grades and dGEMRIC indices. For a subset of 26 hips, 13 were reevaluated with the map and 13 without the map, and total evaluation times were recorded. There were no meaningful differences in the correlations obtained with versus without referencing the planar maps. Planar map-independent Outerbridge grades had a notable (p < 0.05) Spearman's rank correlation (rho) with Beck's grades that was moderate in AP, SC, and PC (0.3 < rho < 0.5) and strong in SP (rho > 0.5). For map-dependent Outerbridge grades, rho was moderate in AP, AC, and SC and strong in SP. Map-independent dGEMRIC indices had a rho with Beck's grades that was moderate in AP and SC (-0.3 > rho > -0.5) and strong in SP (rho < -0.5). For map-dependent dGEMRIC indices, rho was moderate in SC and strong in SP. Similarly, there were no meaningful, map-dependent differences in the correlations. When comparing Outerbridge grades and dGEMRIC indices, there were notable correlations across all subregions. Without the planar map, rho was moderate in AC and PC and strong in AP, SP, SC, and PP. With the map, rho was strong in all six subregions. In AC, there was a notable map-dependent improvement in this correlation (p < 0.001). Finally, referencing the planar dGEMRIC map during evaluation was associated with a decrease in mean evaluation time, from 207 +/- 32 seconds to 152 +/- 33 seconds (p = 0.001). Our work challenges the weak correlation between dGEMRIC and intraoperative findings of cartilage damage that was previously reported in hips with symptomatic FAI, suggesting that dGEMRIC has potential diagnostic use for this patient population. The planar dGEMRIC maps did not meaningfully alter the correlation of imaging-based evaluation of cartilage damage with intraoperative findings; however, they notably improved the correlation of dGEMRIC and MRI-based grading in AC, and their use incurred no additional time cost to imaging-based evaluation. Therefore, the planar maps may improve dGEMRIC's use as a continuous proxy for an otherwise discrete and simplified MRI-based grade of cartilage damage in hips with symptomatic FAI. Level III, diagnostic study. (Less)
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published
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in
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
volume
474
issue
2
pages
467 - 478
publisher
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
external identifiers
  • wos:000368021900035
  • scopus:84954397107
ISSN
0009-921X
DOI
10.1007/s11999-015-4522-4
language
English
LU publication?
yes
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18f0c908-6997-452f-8d80-28d8f49cb0f1 (old id 8739128)
date added to LUP
2016-03-01 07:17:13
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2017-03-26 03:08:14
@article{18f0c908-6997-452f-8d80-28d8f49cb0f1,
  abstract     = {Three-dimensional (3-D) delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) helps quantify biochemical changes in articular cartilage that correlate with early-stage osteoarthritis. However, dGEMRIC analysis is performed slice by slice, limiting the potential of 3-D data to give an overall impression of cartilage biochemistry. We previously developed a computational algorithm to produce unfolded, or "planar," dGEMRIC maps of acetabular cartilage, but have neither assessed their application nor determined whether MRI-based grading of cartilage damage or dGEMRIC measurements predict intraoperative findings in hips with symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). (1) Does imaging-based assessment of acetabular cartilage damage correlate with intraoperative findings in hips with symptomatic FAI? (2) Does the planar dGEMRIC map improve this correlation? (3) Does the planar map improve the correlation between the dGEMRIC index and MRI-based grading of cartilage damage in hips with symptomatic FAI? (4) Does the planar map improve imaging-based evaluation time for hips with symptomatic FAI? We retrospectively studied 47 hips of 45 patients with symptomatic FAI who underwent hip surgery between 2009 and 2013 and had a 1.5-T 3-D dGEMRIC scan within 6 months preoperatively. Our cohort included 25 males and 20 females with a mean +/- SD age at surgery of 29 +/- 11 years. Planar dGEMRIC maps were generated from isotropic, sagittal oblique TrueFISP and T1 sequences. A pediatric musculoskeletal radiologist with experience in hip MRI evaluated studies using radially reformatted sequences. For six acetabular subregions (anterior-peripheral [AP]; anterior-central [AC]; superior-peripheral [SP]; superior-central [SC]; posterior-peripheral [PP]; posterior-central [PC]), modified Outerbridge cartilage damage grades were recorded and region-of-interest T1 averages (the dGEMRIC index) were measured. Beck's intraoperative cartilage damage grades were compared with the Outerbridge grades and dGEMRIC indices. For a subset of 26 hips, 13 were reevaluated with the map and 13 without the map, and total evaluation times were recorded. There were no meaningful differences in the correlations obtained with versus without referencing the planar maps. Planar map-independent Outerbridge grades had a notable (p &lt; 0.05) Spearman's rank correlation (rho) with Beck's grades that was moderate in AP, SC, and PC (0.3 &lt; rho &lt; 0.5) and strong in SP (rho &gt; 0.5). For map-dependent Outerbridge grades, rho was moderate in AP, AC, and SC and strong in SP. Map-independent dGEMRIC indices had a rho with Beck's grades that was moderate in AP and SC (-0.3 &gt; rho &gt; -0.5) and strong in SP (rho &lt; -0.5). For map-dependent dGEMRIC indices, rho was moderate in SC and strong in SP. Similarly, there were no meaningful, map-dependent differences in the correlations. When comparing Outerbridge grades and dGEMRIC indices, there were notable correlations across all subregions. Without the planar map, rho was moderate in AC and PC and strong in AP, SP, SC, and PP. With the map, rho was strong in all six subregions. In AC, there was a notable map-dependent improvement in this correlation (p &lt; 0.001). Finally, referencing the planar dGEMRIC map during evaluation was associated with a decrease in mean evaluation time, from 207 +/- 32 seconds to 152 +/- 33 seconds (p = 0.001). Our work challenges the weak correlation between dGEMRIC and intraoperative findings of cartilage damage that was previously reported in hips with symptomatic FAI, suggesting that dGEMRIC has potential diagnostic use for this patient population. The planar dGEMRIC maps did not meaningfully alter the correlation of imaging-based evaluation of cartilage damage with intraoperative findings; however, they notably improved the correlation of dGEMRIC and MRI-based grading in AC, and their use incurred no additional time cost to imaging-based evaluation. Therefore, the planar maps may improve dGEMRIC's use as a continuous proxy for an otherwise discrete and simplified MRI-based grade of cartilage damage in hips with symptomatic FAI. Level III, diagnostic study.},
  author       = {Bulat, Evgeny and Bixby, Sarah D. and Siversson, Carl and Kalish, Leslie A. and Warfield, Simon K. and Kim, Young-Jo},
  issn         = {0009-921X},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {467--478},
  publisher    = {Lippincott Williams & Wilkins},
  series       = {Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research},
  title        = {Planar dGEMRIC Maps May Aid Imaging Assessment of Cartilage Damage in Femoroacetabular Impingement},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11999-015-4522-4},
  volume       = {474},
  year         = {2016},
}