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The Cer-cqu gene cluster determines three key players in a β-diketone synthase polyketide pathway synthesizing aliphatics in epicuticular waxes.

Schneider, Lizette LU ; Adamski, Nikolai M; Christensen, Caspar Elo; Stuart, David; Vautrin, Sonia; Hansson, Mats LU ; Uauy, Cristobal and von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny (2016) In Journal of Experimental Botany 67(9). p.2715-2730
Abstract
Aliphatic compounds on plant surfaces, called epicuticular waxes, are the first line of defense against pathogens and pests, contribute to reducing water loss and determine other important phenotypes. Aliphatics can form crystals affecting light refraction, resulting in a color change and allowing identification of mutants in their synthesis or transport. The present study discloses three such Eceriferum (cer) genes in barley - Cer-c, Cer-q and Cer-u - known to be tightly linked and functioning in a biochemical pathway forming dominating amounts of β-diketone and hydroxy-β-diketones plus some esterified alkan-2-ols. These aliphatics are present in many Triticeae as well as dicotyledons such as Eucalyptus and Dianthus. Recently developed... (More)
Aliphatic compounds on plant surfaces, called epicuticular waxes, are the first line of defense against pathogens and pests, contribute to reducing water loss and determine other important phenotypes. Aliphatics can form crystals affecting light refraction, resulting in a color change and allowing identification of mutants in their synthesis or transport. The present study discloses three such Eceriferum (cer) genes in barley - Cer-c, Cer-q and Cer-u - known to be tightly linked and functioning in a biochemical pathway forming dominating amounts of β-diketone and hydroxy-β-diketones plus some esterified alkan-2-ols. These aliphatics are present in many Triticeae as well as dicotyledons such as Eucalyptus and Dianthus. Recently developed genomic resources and mapping populations in barley defined these genes to a small region on chromosome arm 2HS. Exploiting Cer-c and -u potential functions pinpointed five candidates, of which three were missing in apparent cer-cqu triple mutants. Sequencing more than 50 independent mutants for each gene confirmed their identification. Cer-c is a chalcone synthase-like polyketide synthase, designated diketone synthase (DKS), Cer-q is a lipase/carboxyl transferase and Cer-u is a P450 enzyme. All were highly expressed in pertinent leaf sheath tissue of wild type. A physical map revealed the order Cer-c, Cer-u, Cer-q with the flanking genes 101kb apart, confirming they are a gene cluster, Cer-cqu. Homology-based modeling suggests that many of the mutant alleles affect overall protein structure or specific active site residues. The rich diversity of identified mutations will facilitate future studies of three key enzymes involved in synthesis of plant apoplast waxes. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Journal of Experimental Botany
volume
67
issue
9
pages
16 pages
publisher
Oxford University Press
external identifiers
  • pmid:26962211
  • scopus:84970005285
  • wos:000376385800018
ISSN
0022-0957
DOI
10.1093/jxb/erw105
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
fe1c1d2a-2f74-4041-868f-9ea0948e29d7 (old id 8852759)
date added to LUP
2016-03-21 08:41:13
date last changed
2017-10-01 03:32:29
@article{fe1c1d2a-2f74-4041-868f-9ea0948e29d7,
  abstract     = {Aliphatic compounds on plant surfaces, called epicuticular waxes, are the first line of defense against pathogens and pests, contribute to reducing water loss and determine other important phenotypes. Aliphatics can form crystals affecting light refraction, resulting in a color change and allowing identification of mutants in their synthesis or transport. The present study discloses three such Eceriferum (cer) genes in barley - Cer-c, Cer-q and Cer-u - known to be tightly linked and functioning in a biochemical pathway forming dominating amounts of β-diketone and hydroxy-β-diketones plus some esterified alkan-2-ols. These aliphatics are present in many Triticeae as well as dicotyledons such as Eucalyptus and Dianthus. Recently developed genomic resources and mapping populations in barley defined these genes to a small region on chromosome arm 2HS. Exploiting Cer-c and -u potential functions pinpointed five candidates, of which three were missing in apparent cer-cqu triple mutants. Sequencing more than 50 independent mutants for each gene confirmed their identification. Cer-c is a chalcone synthase-like polyketide synthase, designated diketone synthase (DKS), Cer-q is a lipase/carboxyl transferase and Cer-u is a P450 enzyme. All were highly expressed in pertinent leaf sheath tissue of wild type. A physical map revealed the order Cer-c, Cer-u, Cer-q with the flanking genes 101kb apart, confirming they are a gene cluster, Cer-cqu. Homology-based modeling suggests that many of the mutant alleles affect overall protein structure or specific active site residues. The rich diversity of identified mutations will facilitate future studies of three key enzymes involved in synthesis of plant apoplast waxes.},
  author       = {Schneider, Lizette and Adamski, Nikolai M and Christensen, Caspar Elo and Stuart, David and Vautrin, Sonia and Hansson, Mats and Uauy, Cristobal and von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny},
  issn         = {0022-0957},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {03},
  number       = {9},
  pages        = {2715--2730},
  publisher    = {Oxford University Press},
  series       = {Journal of Experimental Botany},
  title        = {The Cer-cqu gene cluster determines three key players in a β-diketone synthase polyketide pathway synthesizing aliphatics in epicuticular waxes.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erw105},
  volume       = {67},
  year         = {2016},
}