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Defining Planktonic Protist Functional Groups on Mechanisms for Energy and Nutrient Acquisition: Incorporation of Diverse Mixotrophic Strategies.

Mitra, Aditee; Flynn, Kevin J; Tillmann, Urban; Raven, John A; Caron, David; Stoecker, Diane K; Not, Fabrice; Hansen, Per J; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf and Sanders, Robert, et al. (2016) In Protist 167(2). p.106-120
Abstract
Arranging organisms into functional groups aids ecological research by grouping organisms (irrespective of phylogenetic origin) that interact with environmental factors in similar ways. Planktonic protists traditionally have been split between photoautotrophic "phytoplankton" and phagotrophic "microzooplankton". However, there is a growing recognition of the importance of mixotrophy in euphotic aquatic systems, where many protists often combine photoautotrophic and phagotrophic modes of nutrition. Such organisms do not align with the traditional dichotomy of phytoplankton and microzooplankton. To reflect this understanding, we propose a new functional grouping of planktonic protists in an eco-physiological context: (i) phagoheterotrophs... (More)
Arranging organisms into functional groups aids ecological research by grouping organisms (irrespective of phylogenetic origin) that interact with environmental factors in similar ways. Planktonic protists traditionally have been split between photoautotrophic "phytoplankton" and phagotrophic "microzooplankton". However, there is a growing recognition of the importance of mixotrophy in euphotic aquatic systems, where many protists often combine photoautotrophic and phagotrophic modes of nutrition. Such organisms do not align with the traditional dichotomy of phytoplankton and microzooplankton. To reflect this understanding, we propose a new functional grouping of planktonic protists in an eco-physiological context: (i) phagoheterotrophs lacking phototrophic capacity, (ii) photoautotrophs lacking phagotrophic capacity, (iii) constitutive mixotrophs (CMs) as phagotrophs with an inherent capacity for phototrophy, and (iv) non-constitutive mixotrophs (NCMs) that acquire their phototrophic capacity by ingesting specific (SNCM) or general non-specific (GNCM) prey. For the first time, we incorporate these functional groups within a foodweb structure and show, using model outputs, that there is scope for significant changes in trophic dynamics depending on the protist functional type description. Accordingly, to better reflect the role of mixotrophy, we recommend that as important tools for explanatory and predictive research, aquatic food-web and biogeochemical models need to redefine the protist groups within their frameworks. (Less)
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Protist
volume
167
issue
2
pages
106 - 120
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • pmid:26927496
  • scopus:84959214157
  • wos:000374766700002
ISSN
1434-4610
DOI
10.1016/j.protis.2016.01.003
language
English
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yes
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ef84b6a4-0a02-4776-a1ab-dee72131c2e0 (old id 8857057)
date added to LUP
2016-03-22 12:41:48
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2017-10-29 03:11:00
@article{ef84b6a4-0a02-4776-a1ab-dee72131c2e0,
  abstract     = {Arranging organisms into functional groups aids ecological research by grouping organisms (irrespective of phylogenetic origin) that interact with environmental factors in similar ways. Planktonic protists traditionally have been split between photoautotrophic "phytoplankton" and phagotrophic "microzooplankton". However, there is a growing recognition of the importance of mixotrophy in euphotic aquatic systems, where many protists often combine photoautotrophic and phagotrophic modes of nutrition. Such organisms do not align with the traditional dichotomy of phytoplankton and microzooplankton. To reflect this understanding, we propose a new functional grouping of planktonic protists in an eco-physiological context: (i) phagoheterotrophs lacking phototrophic capacity, (ii) photoautotrophs lacking phagotrophic capacity, (iii) constitutive mixotrophs (CMs) as phagotrophs with an inherent capacity for phototrophy, and (iv) non-constitutive mixotrophs (NCMs) that acquire their phototrophic capacity by ingesting specific (SNCM) or general non-specific (GNCM) prey. For the first time, we incorporate these functional groups within a foodweb structure and show, using model outputs, that there is scope for significant changes in trophic dynamics depending on the protist functional type description. Accordingly, to better reflect the role of mixotrophy, we recommend that as important tools for explanatory and predictive research, aquatic food-web and biogeochemical models need to redefine the protist groups within their frameworks.},
  author       = {Mitra, Aditee and Flynn, Kevin J and Tillmann, Urban and Raven, John A and Caron, David and Stoecker, Diane K and Not, Fabrice and Hansen, Per J and Hallegraeff, Gustaaf and Sanders, Robert and Wilken, Susanne and McManus, George and Johnson, Mathew and Pitta, Paraskevi and Våge, Selina and Berge, Terje and Calbet, Albert and Thingstad, Frede and Jeong, Hae Jin and Burkholder, JoAnn and Glibert, Patricia M and Graneli, Edna and Lundgren, Veronica},
  issn         = {1434-4610},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {106--120},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Protist},
  title        = {Defining Planktonic Protist Functional Groups on Mechanisms for Energy and Nutrient Acquisition: Incorporation of Diverse Mixotrophic Strategies.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.protis.2016.01.003},
  volume       = {167},
  year         = {2016},
}