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Linnebjer — A South Swedish Oak Forest and Meadow Area — Revisited after Half a Century

Andersson, Folke O. and Nihlgård, Bengt LU (2016) In Open Journal of Ecology 6(2). p.74-83
Abstract
An oak forest and three wet meadows/fens were reinvestigated after 50 years concerning tree vitality, biomass and productivity, and soil chemistry. Sulphur and nitrogen deposition has changed dramatically during these years, and the aim was to analyse the differences in both the oak forest and the open field ecosystems. Trees were re-measured and soil profiles were resampled. Important visible changes in the oak forest were stated concerning the vitality of oaks. Aboveground there was a decrease in tree biomass, production and litter fall, but a huge increase in standing dead logs. During the years, the deposition of sulphur had decreased drastically, but nitrogen deposition was still high. Soil acidification in the forest had decreased,... (More)
An oak forest and three wet meadows/fens were reinvestigated after 50 years concerning tree vitality, biomass and productivity, and soil chemistry. Sulphur and nitrogen deposition has changed dramatically during these years, and the aim was to analyse the differences in both the oak forest and the open field ecosystems. Trees were re-measured and soil profiles were resampled. Important visible changes in the oak forest were stated concerning the vitality of oaks. Aboveground there was a decrease in tree biomass, production and litter fall, but a huge increase in standing dead logs. During the years, the deposition of sulphur had decreased drastically, but nitrogen deposition was still high. Soil acidification in the forest had decreased, reflected in an increased base saturation in the forest, in spite of slightly lowered pH-values. Strongly increased amounts of exchangeable Ca and Mg now appeared in the forest soil, and a substantial transport of calcium and magnesium had obviously taken place from the forest soil to the meadow and fens during the years. However, the most important soil change was the accumulation of organic matter. The increased accumulation of organic matter in turn meant increased amounts of colloid particles and microsites for ion exchange in the soil. This favoured 2-valence base cations, and especially Ca and Mg that increased very much in all the studied ecosystems. Carbon as well as nitrogen had strongly increased in the forest, meadow and fen soils. This was interpreted as a natural result of increased vegetation growth due to high nitrogen deposition, increased global annual temperature and increased carbon dioxide concentration in air. It was concluded that the decreased deposition of sulphur had had a positive effect on soil chemistry, and that the deposition of nitrogen probably had stimulated vegetation growth in general, and contributed to increased amount of organic matter in the soils. However, in this studied oak forest, the decreased vitality and many killed trees were also suspected to be a result of high nitrogen deposition. Obviously increased tree growth was counteracted by decreased stress resistance, and increased appearance of pathogens in the oak trees. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Oak Disease, Tree Vitality, Deposition of S and N, Soil Acidification, Soil C and N Accumulation, Increased Amounts of Ca and Mg
in
Open Journal of Ecology
volume
6
issue
2
pages
74 - 83
publisher
Scientific Research
ISSN
2162-1985
DOI
10.4236/oje.2016.62008
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
936bb885-0b79-4650-aafe-7fd7315ed339
date added to LUP
2016-10-26 13:26:14
date last changed
2017-11-14 09:50:40
@article{936bb885-0b79-4650-aafe-7fd7315ed339,
  abstract     = {An oak forest and three wet meadows/fens were reinvestigated after 50 years concerning tree vitality, biomass and productivity, and soil chemistry. Sulphur and nitrogen deposition has changed dramatically during these years, and the aim was to analyse the differences in both the oak forest and the open field ecosystems. Trees were re-measured and soil profiles were resampled. Important visible changes in the oak forest were stated concerning the vitality of oaks. Aboveground there was a decrease in tree biomass, production and litter fall, but a huge increase in standing dead logs. During the years, the deposition of sulphur had decreased drastically, but nitrogen deposition was still high. Soil acidification in the forest had decreased, reflected in an increased base saturation in the forest, in spite of slightly lowered pH-values. Strongly increased amounts of exchangeable Ca and Mg now appeared in the forest soil, and a substantial transport of calcium and magnesium had obviously taken place from the forest soil to the meadow and fens during the years. However, the most important soil change was the accumulation of organic matter. The increased accumulation of organic matter in turn meant increased amounts of colloid particles and microsites for ion exchange in the soil. This favoured 2-valence base cations, and especially Ca and Mg that increased very much in all the studied ecosystems. Carbon as well as nitrogen had strongly increased in the forest, meadow and fen soils. This was interpreted as a natural result of increased vegetation growth due to high nitrogen deposition, increased global annual temperature and increased carbon dioxide concentration in air. It was concluded that the decreased deposition of sulphur had had a positive effect on soil chemistry, and that the deposition of nitrogen probably had stimulated vegetation growth in general, and contributed to increased amount of organic matter in the soils. However, in this studied oak forest, the decreased vitality and many killed trees were also suspected to be a result of high nitrogen deposition. Obviously increased tree growth was counteracted by decreased stress resistance, and increased appearance of pathogens in the oak trees.},
  author       = {Andersson, Folke O. and Nihlgård, Bengt},
  issn         = {2162-1985},
  keyword      = {Oak Disease,Tree Vitality,Deposition of S and N,Soil Acidification,Soil C and N Accumulation,Increased Amounts of Ca and Mg},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {74--83},
  publisher    = {Scientific Research},
  series       = {Open Journal of Ecology},
  title        = {Linnebjer — A South Swedish Oak Forest and Meadow Area — Revisited after Half a Century},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oje.2016.62008},
  volume       = {6},
  year         = {2016},
}