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Natural variability in exposure to fine particles and their trace elements during typical workdays in an urban area

Moreira, Camila A.B.; Squizzato, Rafaela; Beal, Alexandra; de Almeida, Daniela Sanches; Rudke, Anderson P.; Ribeiro, Marcos; Andrade, Maria de Fátima; Kumar, Prashant and Martins, Leila Droprinchinski LU (2018) In Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 63. p.333-346
Abstract

Studies on the natural human exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and their elements composition are practically non-existent in South America. In order to understand the natural exposure of the typical Brazilian population to PM2.5 and their trace element composition, we measured PM2.5 concentrations and collected mass on filters for nine continuous hours during a typical workday of volunteers. In addition, bus routes were performed at peak and non-peak periods, mimicking the routine activity of the population. Mean concentrations of PM2.5 in the bus and car groups were similar while the fraction of BCe was higher for the bus group. For all routes, mean PM2.5 concentrations... (More)

Studies on the natural human exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and their elements composition are practically non-existent in South America. In order to understand the natural exposure of the typical Brazilian population to PM2.5 and their trace element composition, we measured PM2.5 concentrations and collected mass on filters for nine continuous hours during a typical workday of volunteers. In addition, bus routes were performed at peak and non-peak periods, mimicking the routine activity of the population. Mean concentrations of PM2.5 in the bus and car groups were similar while the fraction of BCe was higher for the bus group. For all routes, mean PM2.5 concentrations were higher during peak than non-peak hours, with an average of 43.5 ± 33.1 μg m−3 and 14.3 ± 10.2 μg m−3, respectively. The trace elements S, K and Na originated mainly from vehicle emissions; Na was associated with the presence of biofuel in diesel. Toxic elements (Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Mn) were found at low levels as evident by the total hazard index that ranged from 2.15 × 10−03 to 1.38 for volunteers. For all routes, the hazard index ranged from 2.25 × 10−03 to 5.03. Average PM2.5 respiratory deposition dose was estimated to be 0.60 μg/kg-hour for peak hours. Potential health damages to people during their movements and at workplaces close to the traffic were identified. Improvements in the design of the building to reduce the entrance of air pollutants as well as the use of filters in the buses could help to limit population exposure.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Black carbon, Fine particulate matter, Personal exposure, Trace metals, Urban routes
in
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment
volume
63
pages
14 pages
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • scopus:85048712412
ISSN
1361-9209
DOI
10.1016/j.trd.2018.06.010
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
94ef72cb-c05c-4457-ae7f-0b7a28a8cc15
date added to LUP
2018-06-28 11:45:22
date last changed
2019-02-20 11:21:03
@article{94ef72cb-c05c-4457-ae7f-0b7a28a8cc15,
  abstract     = {<p>Studies on the natural human exposures to fine particulate matter (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) and their elements composition are practically non-existent in South America. In order to understand the natural exposure of the typical Brazilian population to PM<sub>2.5</sub> and their trace element composition, we measured PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations and collected mass on filters for nine continuous hours during a typical workday of volunteers. In addition, bus routes were performed at peak and non-peak periods, mimicking the routine activity of the population. Mean concentrations of PM<sub>2.5</sub> in the bus and car groups were similar while the fraction of BCe was higher for the bus group. For all routes, mean PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations were higher during peak than non-peak hours, with an average of 43.5 ± 33.1 μg m<sup>−3</sup> and 14.3 ± 10.2 μg m<sup>−3</sup>, respectively. The trace elements S, K and Na originated mainly from vehicle emissions; Na was associated with the presence of biofuel in diesel. Toxic elements (Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Mn) were found at low levels as evident by the total hazard index that ranged from 2.15 × 10<sup>−03</sup> to 1.38 for volunteers. For all routes, the hazard index ranged from 2.25 × 10<sup>−03</sup> to 5.03. Average PM<sub>2.5</sub> respiratory deposition dose was estimated to be 0.60 μg/kg-hour for peak hours. Potential health damages to people during their movements and at workplaces close to the traffic were identified. Improvements in the design of the building to reduce the entrance of air pollutants as well as the use of filters in the buses could help to limit population exposure.</p>},
  author       = {Moreira, Camila A.B. and Squizzato, Rafaela and Beal, Alexandra and de Almeida, Daniela Sanches and Rudke, Anderson P. and Ribeiro, Marcos and Andrade, Maria de Fátima and Kumar, Prashant and Martins, Leila Droprinchinski},
  issn         = {1361-9209},
  keyword      = {Black carbon,Fine particulate matter,Personal exposure,Trace metals,Urban routes},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {08},
  pages        = {333--346},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment},
  title        = {Natural variability in exposure to fine particles and their trace elements during typical workdays in an urban area},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2018.06.010},
  volume       = {63},
  year         = {2018},
}