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Lift-based paddling in diving grebe

Johansson, Christoffer LU and Lindhe-Norberg, Ulla (2001) In Journal of Experimental Biology 204(10). p.1687-1696
Abstract
To examine the hydrodynamic propulsion mechanism of a diving great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus), the three-dimensional kinematics was determined by digital analysis of sequential video images of dorsal and lateral views. During the acceleration phase of this foot-propelled bird, the feet move through an arc in a plane nearly normal to the bird's line of motion through the water, i.e. the toes move dorsally and medially but not caudally relative to the water. The kinematics of the grebe's lobed feet is different from that in anseriforms, whose feet move in a plane mostly parallel to the bird's line of progress through the water. Our results suggest that the foot-propelled locomotor mechanism of grebes is based primarily on a... (More)
To examine the hydrodynamic propulsion mechanism of a diving great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus), the three-dimensional kinematics was determined by digital analysis of sequential video images of dorsal and lateral views. During the acceleration phase of this foot-propelled bird, the feet move through an arc in a plane nearly normal to the bird's line of motion through the water, i.e. the toes move dorsally and medially but not caudally relative to the water. The kinematics of the grebe's lobed feet is different from that in anseriforms, whose feet move in a plane mostly parallel to the bird's line of progress through the water. Our results suggest that the foot-propelled locomotor mechanism of grebes is based primarily on a lift-producing leg and foot stroke, in contrast to the drag-based locomotion assumed previously. We suggest that the lift-based paddling of grebes considerably increases both maximum swimming speed and energetic efficiency over drag-based propulsion. Furthermore, the results implicate a new interpretation of the functional morphology of these birds, with the toes serving as a self-stabilizing multi-slotted hydrofoil during the power phase. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
great crested grebe, Podiceps cristatus, paddling, lift production, kinematics, hydrofoil, multislots, diving, swimming, hydrodynamics.
in
Journal of Experimental Biology
volume
204
issue
10
pages
1687 - 1696
publisher
The Company of Biologists Ltd
external identifiers
  • scopus:0035746211
ISSN
1477-9145
language
English
LU publication?
no
id
35dbd5a5-09f0-4b4a-8b66-7e2186de84a9 (old id 951394)
alternative location
http://jeb.biologists.org/cgi/reprint/204/10/1687.pdf
date added to LUP
2008-01-25 12:53:52
date last changed
2018-03-25 03:32:10
@article{35dbd5a5-09f0-4b4a-8b66-7e2186de84a9,
  abstract     = {To examine the hydrodynamic propulsion mechanism of a diving great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus), the three-dimensional kinematics was determined by digital analysis of sequential video images of dorsal and lateral views. During the acceleration phase of this foot-propelled bird, the feet move through an arc in a plane nearly normal to the bird's line of motion through the water, i.e. the toes move dorsally and medially but not caudally relative to the water. The kinematics of the grebe's lobed feet is different from that in anseriforms, whose feet move in a plane mostly parallel to the bird's line of progress through the water. Our results suggest that the foot-propelled locomotor mechanism of grebes is based primarily on a lift-producing leg and foot stroke, in contrast to the drag-based locomotion assumed previously. We suggest that the lift-based paddling of grebes considerably increases both maximum swimming speed and energetic efficiency over drag-based propulsion. Furthermore, the results implicate a new interpretation of the functional morphology of these birds, with the toes serving as a self-stabilizing multi-slotted hydrofoil during the power phase.},
  author       = {Johansson, Christoffer and Lindhe-Norberg, Ulla},
  issn         = {1477-9145},
  keyword      = {great crested grebe,Podiceps cristatus,paddling,lift
production,kinematics,hydrofoil,multislots,diving,swimming,hydrodynamics.},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {10},
  pages        = {1687--1696},
  publisher    = {The Company of Biologists Ltd},
  series       = {Journal of Experimental Biology},
  title        = {Lift-based paddling in diving grebe},
  volume       = {204},
  year         = {2001},
}