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Genetic diversity and identification of palearctic black flies in the subgenus wilhelmia (Diptera: Simuliidae)

Inci, Abdullah; Yildirim, Alparslan; Duzlu, Onder; Onder, Zuhal; Ciloglu, Arif LU ; Seitz, Gunther and Adler, Peter H. (2017) In Journal of Medical Entomology 54(4). p.888-894
Abstract

Accurate species identifications are the essential first step in understanding the medical, economic, and ecological importance of black flies. The utility of DNA barcoding based on cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) sequences was evaluated for identifying six common species of Palearctic black flies in the subgenus Wilhelmia, including several that are virulent pests. Chromosomally identified larvae from Turkey and Germany and COI sequences in GenBank were analyzed. Intraspecific genetic divergence was 0.7-3.5% (mean 1.6%), whereas interspecific genetic divergence was 2.7-16.9%. On the basis of COI barcodes, the six nominal species of Simulium (Wilhelmia) were clustered in three distinct clades with high levels of genetic divergence,... (More)

Accurate species identifications are the essential first step in understanding the medical, economic, and ecological importance of black flies. The utility of DNA barcoding based on cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) sequences was evaluated for identifying six common species of Palearctic black flies in the subgenus Wilhelmia, including several that are virulent pests. Chromosomally identified larvae from Turkey and Germany and COI sequences in GenBank were analyzed. Intraspecific genetic divergence was 0.7-3.5% (mean 1.6%), whereas interspecific genetic divergence was 2.7-16.9%. On the basis of COI barcodes, the six nominal species of Simulium (Wilhelmia) were clustered in three distinct clades with high levels of genetic divergence, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. All specimens of Simulium equinum (L.), Simulium pseudequinum Séguy, and Simulium paraequinum Puri were correctly identified. However, >75% of identifications were ambiguous for Simulium lineatum (Meigen) and Simulium turgaicum Rubtsov (Meigen) because of overlapping intra- and interspecific divergence of the two species and Simulium balcanicum (Enderlein), all three of which are chromosomally similar and nearly isomorphic. Phylogenetic evaluation showed that S. balcanicum, S. equinum, S. pseudequinum, and S. paraequinum were monophyletic, with high bootstrap and posterior probability values, but it also showed that S. lineatum and S. turgaicum were paraphyletic, each clustering in two distinct groups, suggesting the presence of cryptic taxa. Although DNA barcoding provided a partial means of identification and indications of additional biodiversity, other molecular markers are needed to clarify the limits of all pest species of the subgenus Wilhelmia.

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author
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Cytochrome oxidase I, DNA bar code, pest, phylogenetic, Simulium
in
Journal of Medical Entomology
volume
54
issue
4
pages
7 pages
publisher
Entomological Society of America
external identifiers
  • scopus:85023206231
ISSN
0022-2585
DOI
10.1093/jme/tjw246
language
English
LU publication?
no
id
971d6af7-8962-4ba3-acee-4148498ad3c5
date added to LUP
2017-12-04 15:13:25
date last changed
2018-01-07 12:27:17
@article{971d6af7-8962-4ba3-acee-4148498ad3c5,
  abstract     = {<p>Accurate species identifications are the essential first step in understanding the medical, economic, and ecological importance of black flies. The utility of DNA barcoding based on cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) sequences was evaluated for identifying six common species of Palearctic black flies in the subgenus Wilhelmia, including several that are virulent pests. Chromosomally identified larvae from Turkey and Germany and COI sequences in GenBank were analyzed. Intraspecific genetic divergence was 0.7-3.5% (mean 1.6%), whereas interspecific genetic divergence was 2.7-16.9%. On the basis of COI barcodes, the six nominal species of Simulium (Wilhelmia) were clustered in three distinct clades with high levels of genetic divergence, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. All specimens of Simulium equinum (L.), Simulium pseudequinum Séguy, and Simulium paraequinum Puri were correctly identified. However, &gt;75% of identifications were ambiguous for Simulium lineatum (Meigen) and Simulium turgaicum Rubtsov (Meigen) because of overlapping intra- and interspecific divergence of the two species and Simulium balcanicum (Enderlein), all three of which are chromosomally similar and nearly isomorphic. Phylogenetic evaluation showed that S. balcanicum, S. equinum, S. pseudequinum, and S. paraequinum were monophyletic, with high bootstrap and posterior probability values, but it also showed that S. lineatum and S. turgaicum were paraphyletic, each clustering in two distinct groups, suggesting the presence of cryptic taxa. Although DNA barcoding provided a partial means of identification and indications of additional biodiversity, other molecular markers are needed to clarify the limits of all pest species of the subgenus Wilhelmia.</p>},
  author       = {Inci, Abdullah and Yildirim, Alparslan and Duzlu, Onder and Onder, Zuhal and Ciloglu, Arif and Seitz, Gunther and Adler, Peter H.},
  issn         = {0022-2585},
  keyword      = {Cytochrome oxidase I,DNA bar code,pest,phylogenetic,Simulium},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {07},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {888--894},
  publisher    = {Entomological Society of America},
  series       = {Journal of Medical Entomology},
  title        = {Genetic diversity and identification of palearctic black flies in the subgenus wilhelmia (Diptera: Simuliidae)},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjw246},
  volume       = {54},
  year         = {2017},
}