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Arterial oxygen saturation and diving response during dynamic apneas in breath-hold divers

Andersson, Johan LU and Evaggelidis, Leif (2009) In Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 19(1). p.87-91
Abstract
Competitive breath-hold divers try to achieve maximum times, depths, or distances underwater, thereby risking hypoxic syncope. In the present study, the cardiorespiratory responses to dynamic apnea (simultaneously initiated apneas and dynamic leg exercise) were investigated in 10 breath-hold divers. The divers performed 60 s dynamic apneas with the face in air (A) or face immersed in cold water (AFI). During apneas, the arterial oxygen saturation was reduced (A: -10%), but to a lesser extent during AFI (-6%, P<0.01), reaching a nadir 10-15 s post-apnea. Also, changes in end-tidal O(2) and CO(2) pressures (P(et)O(2)/P(et)CO(2)) were smaller during AFI than A (DeltaP(et)O(2): 8.2 vs 8.7 kPa, P<0.01; DeltaP(et)CO(2): 3.1 vs 3.2 kPa,... (More)
Competitive breath-hold divers try to achieve maximum times, depths, or distances underwater, thereby risking hypoxic syncope. In the present study, the cardiorespiratory responses to dynamic apnea (simultaneously initiated apneas and dynamic leg exercise) were investigated in 10 breath-hold divers. The divers performed 60 s dynamic apneas with the face in air (A) or face immersed in cold water (AFI). During apneas, the arterial oxygen saturation was reduced (A: -10%), but to a lesser extent during AFI (-6%, P<0.01), reaching a nadir 10-15 s post-apnea. Also, changes in end-tidal O(2) and CO(2) pressures (P(et)O(2)/P(et)CO(2)) were smaller during AFI than A (DeltaP(et)O(2): 8.2 vs 8.7 kPa, P<0.01; DeltaP(et)CO(2): 3.1 vs 3.2 kPa, P<0.05). The heart rate was lower during AFI than A (66 vs 78 bpm, P<0.01), reflecting an augmented diving response during AFI. The maximum safe breath-hold time under the conditions of the present study was calculated to be 101 and 106 s for A and AFI, respectively, consistent with the dynamic apnea times achieved by world-class apnea divers. It is concluded that the augmented diving response during face immersion apneas is associated with a slower reduction of the pulmonary (and arterial) oxygen store, probably delaying the occurrence of a hypoxic syncope. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
volume
19
issue
1
pages
87 - 91
publisher
Wiley-Blackwell
external identifiers
  • wos:000262901500012
  • scopus:59149087120
ISSN
1600-0838
DOI
10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00777.x
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
84bba6d2-7b68-4207-b11d-8a6a5a3f3d56 (old id 979118)
date added to LUP
2008-01-29 08:48:16
date last changed
2017-10-08 03:43:14
@article{84bba6d2-7b68-4207-b11d-8a6a5a3f3d56,
  abstract     = {Competitive breath-hold divers try to achieve maximum times, depths, or distances underwater, thereby risking hypoxic syncope. In the present study, the cardiorespiratory responses to dynamic apnea (simultaneously initiated apneas and dynamic leg exercise) were investigated in 10 breath-hold divers. The divers performed 60 s dynamic apneas with the face in air (A) or face immersed in cold water (AFI). During apneas, the arterial oxygen saturation was reduced (A: -10%), but to a lesser extent during AFI (-6%, P&lt;0.01), reaching a nadir 10-15 s post-apnea. Also, changes in end-tidal O(2) and CO(2) pressures (P(et)O(2)/P(et)CO(2)) were smaller during AFI than A (DeltaP(et)O(2): 8.2 vs 8.7 kPa, P&lt;0.01; DeltaP(et)CO(2): 3.1 vs 3.2 kPa, P&lt;0.05). The heart rate was lower during AFI than A (66 vs 78 bpm, P&lt;0.01), reflecting an augmented diving response during AFI. The maximum safe breath-hold time under the conditions of the present study was calculated to be 101 and 106 s for A and AFI, respectively, consistent with the dynamic apnea times achieved by world-class apnea divers. It is concluded that the augmented diving response during face immersion apneas is associated with a slower reduction of the pulmonary (and arterial) oxygen store, probably delaying the occurrence of a hypoxic syncope.},
  author       = {Andersson, Johan and Evaggelidis, Leif},
  issn         = {1600-0838},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {87--91},
  publisher    = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  series       = {Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports},
  title        = {Arterial oxygen saturation and diving response during dynamic apneas in breath-hold divers},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00777.x},
  volume       = {19},
  year         = {2009},
}