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Size for gestational age affects the risk for type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents : a Swedish national case–control study

Lindell, Nina ; Bladh, Marie ; Carlsson, Annelie LU orcid ; Josefsson, Ann ; Aakesson, Karin LU and Samuelsson, Ulf (2021) In Diabetologia 64(5). p.1113-1120
Abstract

Aim/hypothesis: Environmental factors are believed to contribute to the risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate how size for gestational age affects the risk of developing childhood type 1 diabetes. Methods: Using the Swedish paediatric diabetes quality register and the Swedish medical birth register, children with type 1 diabetes diagnosed between 2000 and 2012 (n = 9376) were matched with four control children (n = 37,504). Small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) were defined according to Swedish national standards. Data were initially analysed using Pearson’s χ2 and thereafter by single and multiple logistic regression models. Results: An equal proportion of... (More)

Aim/hypothesis: Environmental factors are believed to contribute to the risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate how size for gestational age affects the risk of developing childhood type 1 diabetes. Methods: Using the Swedish paediatric diabetes quality register and the Swedish medical birth register, children with type 1 diabetes diagnosed between 2000 and 2012 (n = 9376) were matched with four control children (n = 37,504). Small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) were defined according to Swedish national standards. Data were initially analysed using Pearson’s χ2 and thereafter by single and multiple logistic regression models. Results: An equal proportion of children were born appropriate for gestational age, but children with type 1 diabetes were more often born LGA and less often born SGA than control children (4.7% vs 3.5% and 2.0% vs 2.6%, respectively, p < 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, being born LGA increased (adjusted OR 1.16 [95% CI 1.02, 1.32]) and SGA decreased (adjusted OR 0.76 [95% CI 0.63, 0.92]) the risk for type 1 diabetes, regardless of maternal BMI and diabetes. Conclusions/interpretation: Size for gestational age of Swedish children affects the risk of type 1 diabetes, with increased risk if the child is born LGA and decreased risk if the child is born SGA. Being born LGA is an independent risk factor for type 1 diabetes irrespective of maternal BMI and diabetes. Thus, reducing the risk for a child being born LGA might to some extent reduce the risk for type 1 diabetes. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

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author
; ; ; ; and
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Age at onset, Children, Epidemiology, Large for gestational age, Risk factor, Small for gestational age, Type 1 diabetes
in
Diabetologia
volume
64
issue
5
pages
1113 - 1120
publisher
Springer
external identifiers
  • scopus:85100553941
  • pmid:33544169
ISSN
0012-186X
DOI
10.1007/s00125-021-05381-y
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
97de6690-474b-4580-959d-92376aa9b29e
date added to LUP
2021-02-26 09:08:23
date last changed
2022-08-04 07:33:46
@article{97de6690-474b-4580-959d-92376aa9b29e,
  abstract     = {{<p>Aim/hypothesis: Environmental factors are believed to contribute to the risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate how size for gestational age affects the risk of developing childhood type 1 diabetes. Methods: Using the Swedish paediatric diabetes quality register and the Swedish medical birth register, children with type 1 diabetes diagnosed between 2000 and 2012 (n = 9376) were matched with four control children (n = 37,504). Small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) were defined according to Swedish national standards. Data were initially analysed using Pearson’s χ<sup>2</sup> and thereafter by single and multiple logistic regression models. Results: An equal proportion of children were born appropriate for gestational age, but children with type 1 diabetes were more often born LGA and less often born SGA than control children (4.7% vs 3.5% and 2.0% vs 2.6%, respectively, p &lt; 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, being born LGA increased (adjusted OR 1.16 [95% CI 1.02, 1.32]) and SGA decreased (adjusted OR 0.76 [95% CI 0.63, 0.92]) the risk for type 1 diabetes, regardless of maternal BMI and diabetes. Conclusions/interpretation: Size for gestational age of Swedish children affects the risk of type 1 diabetes, with increased risk if the child is born LGA and decreased risk if the child is born SGA. Being born LGA is an independent risk factor for type 1 diabetes irrespective of maternal BMI and diabetes. Thus, reducing the risk for a child being born LGA might to some extent reduce the risk for type 1 diabetes. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].</p>}},
  author       = {{Lindell, Nina and Bladh, Marie and Carlsson, Annelie and Josefsson, Ann and Aakesson, Karin and Samuelsson, Ulf}},
  issn         = {{0012-186X}},
  keywords     = {{Age at onset; Children; Epidemiology; Large for gestational age; Risk factor; Small for gestational age; Type 1 diabetes}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  month        = {{02}},
  number       = {{5}},
  pages        = {{1113--1120}},
  publisher    = {{Springer}},
  series       = {{Diabetologia}},
  title        = {{Size for gestational age affects the risk for type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents : a Swedish national case–control study}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-021-05381-y}},
  doi          = {{10.1007/s00125-021-05381-y}},
  volume       = {{64}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}