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Sustaining Authoritarianism : Clientelism and Repression in Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan and Tanzania

Orange, Mia LU (2019) In Lund Political Studies
Abstract
Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan and Tanzania share a past and present as authoritarian states. Dominant parties are in power in Tanzania and Kazakhstan, while elections are competitive but not democratic in Kenya and Kyrgyzstan. Returns for political support (clientelism), and persecution of political adversaries and the electorate (repression), are key components in all four states. This dissertation provides an account of these features, and how and when dynamics of clientelism and repression have changed.

Clientelism and repression are widely used to explain why states transition to a different regime type, suggesting that their presence or absence, degree or form, informs seminal changes.

This dissertation turns such... (More)
Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan and Tanzania share a past and present as authoritarian states. Dominant parties are in power in Tanzania and Kazakhstan, while elections are competitive but not democratic in Kenya and Kyrgyzstan. Returns for political support (clientelism), and persecution of political adversaries and the electorate (repression), are key components in all four states. This dissertation provides an account of these features, and how and when dynamics of clientelism and repression have changed.

Clientelism and repression are widely used to explain why states transition to a different regime type, suggesting that their presence or absence, degree or form, informs seminal changes.

This dissertation turns such arguments around, instead investigating how changes in regime affect clientelism and repression, allowing an investigation of change within elites, society and the state. It looks at changes in clientelism and repression that did not lead to regime change, and at cases when clientelism and repression continue despite turnovers.

Patterns where a more diverse set of actors than the incumbent are involved in repressive and clientelistic practices are investigated, and sub-concepts are developed in order to speak of these changes in more specific terms.

This is investigated through careful empirical study and field work carried out in all four states. More than 300 people were interviewed during the course of several years. The perspective is historical, from the late Soviet era in Central Asia, and independence in East Africa. It tracks clientelism both within the elites (intra-elite clientelism), and aimed towards the general public (mass-elite clientelism). Changes in repression are also investigated, using an actor-centered approach regarding resources and operation.
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Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Professor Linde, Jonas, University of Bergen
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Clientelism, Repression, Authorianism, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tanzania, Kenya
in
Lund Political Studies
issue
196
pages
322 pages
publisher
Lund University
defense location
Edens auditorium, Paradisgatan 5H, Lund
defense date
2019-05-03 10:15:00
ISSN
0460-0037
ISBN
978-91-7895-061-4
978-91-7895-060-7
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
a3894ddd-176e-428c-b750-2a06c244b410
date added to LUP
2019-04-01 16:52:59
date last changed
2019-07-05 15:51:10
@phdthesis{a3894ddd-176e-428c-b750-2a06c244b410,
  abstract     = {Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan and Tanzania share a past and present as authoritarian states. Dominant parties are in power in Tanzania and Kazakhstan, while elections are competitive but not democratic in Kenya and Kyrgyzstan. Returns for political support (clientelism), and persecution of political adversaries and the electorate (repression), are key components in all four states. This dissertation provides an account of these features, and how and when dynamics of clientelism and repression have changed.  <br/><br/>Clientelism and repression are widely used to explain why states transition to a different regime type, suggesting that their presence or absence, degree or form, informs seminal changes. <br/><br/>This dissertation turns such arguments around, instead investigating how changes in regime affect clientelism and repression, allowing an investigation of change within elites, society and the state. It looks at changes in clientelism and repression that did not lead to regime change, and at cases when clientelism and repression continue despite turnovers. <br/><br/>Patterns where a more diverse set of actors than the incumbent are involved in repressive and clientelistic practices are investigated, and sub-concepts are developed in order to speak of these changes in more specific terms. <br/><br/>This is investigated through careful empirical study and field work carried out in all four states. More than 300 people were interviewed during the course of several years. The perspective is historical, from the late Soviet era in Central Asia, and independence in East Africa. It  tracks clientelism both within the elites (intra-elite clientelism), and aimed towards the general public (mass-elite clientelism). Changes in repression are also investigated, using an actor-centered approach regarding resources and operation.  <br/>},
  author       = {Orange, Mia},
  isbn         = {978-91-7895-061-4},
  issn         = {0460-0037},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {05},
  number       = {196},
  publisher    = {Lund University},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {Lund Political Studies},
  title        = {Sustaining Authoritarianism : Clientelism and Repression in Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan and Tanzania},
  url          = {https://lup.lub.lu.se/search/ws/files/62518509/Mia_Orange_komplett1.pdf},
  year         = {2019},
}