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Midnight salivary cortisol secretion and the use of antidepressants were associated with abdominal obesity in women with type 1 diabetes : A cross sectional study

Melin, Eva Olga LU ; Hillman, Magnus LU ; Thunander, Maria LU and Landin-Olsson, Mona LU (2019) In Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome 11(1).
Abstract

Background: Abdominal obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim was to explore the influence of midnight salivary cortisol (MSC), antidepressants and sex on abdominal obesity in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We controlled for physical inactivity, smoking, depression and alexithymia. Methods: Cross sectional study of 190 T1D patients (86 women/104 men, 18-59 years, diabetes duration 1-55 years), consecutively recruited from one specialist diabetes outpatient clinic. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, saliva and blood samples were collected, supplemented with data from electronic medical records. Depression and alexithymia were assessed by self-report instruments. MSC (nmol/l) was categorised into 3 levels: high MSC: (≥ 6.7) (n... (More)

Background: Abdominal obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim was to explore the influence of midnight salivary cortisol (MSC), antidepressants and sex on abdominal obesity in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We controlled for physical inactivity, smoking, depression and alexithymia. Methods: Cross sectional study of 190 T1D patients (86 women/104 men, 18-59 years, diabetes duration 1-55 years), consecutively recruited from one specialist diabetes outpatient clinic. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, saliva and blood samples were collected, supplemented with data from electronic medical records. Depression and alexithymia were assessed by self-report instruments. MSC (nmol/l) was categorised into 3 levels: high MSC: (≥ 6.7) (n = 64); intermediate MSC: ≥ 3.7- < 6.7) (n = 64); low MSC (< 3.7) (n = 62). Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference (meters) ≥ 0.88 for women and as ≥ 1.02 for men. Multiple logistic regression analyses (Backward: Wald) were performed. The Hosmer and Lemeshow test for goodness-of-fit and Nagelkerke R2 were used to evaluate each multiple logistic regression analysis model. Results: The prevalence of abdominal obesity was three times higher in the women than in the men (24% versus 8%) (p = 0.002). Antidepressants were used by 10% of the women and by 4% of the men (p = 0.09). The prevalence of high MSC was 1.7 times higher in the women (43% versus 26%); the prevalence of both intermediate MSC (28% versus 38%) and low MSC (29% versus 36%) were lower in the women (p = 0.048). Significant associations with abdominal obesity were for all 190 patients: female sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.4 (confidence interval (CI) 1.4-8.2)) and the use of antidepressants (AOR 4.3 (CI 1.2-14.8)); for the 86 women: high MSC (AOR 18.4 (CI 1.9-181)) and use of antidepressants (AOR 12.2 (CI 2.0-73.6)); and for the 104 men: alexithymia (AOR 5.2 (CI 1.1-24.9)). Conclusions: Clear sex differences were demonstrated with a distinct higher prevalence of abdominal obesity, as well as a distinct higher prevalence of high midnight salivary cortisol in the women with type 1 diabetes. High midnight salivary cortisol secretion and the use of antidepressants were independent risk factors for abdominal obesity in the women.

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organization
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type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Abdominal obesity, Alexithymia, Antidepressants, Cortisol, Depression, Physical inactivity, Sex differences, Smoking, Type 1 diabetes
in
Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome
volume
11
issue
1
article number
88
publisher
BioMed Central
external identifiers
  • scopus:85075481744
  • pmid:31687046
ISSN
1758-5996
DOI
10.1186/s13098-019-0481-3
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
b97d3084-10ee-4618-8ce1-2fe771d5a542
date added to LUP
2019-12-06 11:52:28
date last changed
2020-01-13 02:34:55
@article{b97d3084-10ee-4618-8ce1-2fe771d5a542,
  abstract     = {<p>Background: Abdominal obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim was to explore the influence of midnight salivary cortisol (MSC), antidepressants and sex on abdominal obesity in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We controlled for physical inactivity, smoking, depression and alexithymia. Methods: Cross sectional study of 190 T1D patients (86 women/104 men, 18-59 years, diabetes duration 1-55 years), consecutively recruited from one specialist diabetes outpatient clinic. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, saliva and blood samples were collected, supplemented with data from electronic medical records. Depression and alexithymia were assessed by self-report instruments. MSC (nmol/l) was categorised into 3 levels: high MSC: (≥ 6.7) (n = 64); intermediate MSC: ≥ 3.7- &lt; 6.7) (n = 64); low MSC (&lt; 3.7) (n = 62). Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference (meters) ≥ 0.88 for women and as ≥ 1.02 for men. Multiple logistic regression analyses (Backward: Wald) were performed. The Hosmer and Lemeshow test for goodness-of-fit and Nagelkerke R<sup>2</sup> were used to evaluate each multiple logistic regression analysis model. Results: The prevalence of abdominal obesity was three times higher in the women than in the men (24% versus 8%) (p = 0.002). Antidepressants were used by 10% of the women and by 4% of the men (p = 0.09). The prevalence of high MSC was 1.7 times higher in the women (43% versus 26%); the prevalence of both intermediate MSC (28% versus 38%) and low MSC (29% versus 36%) were lower in the women (p = 0.048). Significant associations with abdominal obesity were for all 190 patients: female sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.4 (confidence interval (CI) 1.4-8.2)) and the use of antidepressants (AOR 4.3 (CI 1.2-14.8)); for the 86 women: high MSC (AOR 18.4 (CI 1.9-181)) and use of antidepressants (AOR 12.2 (CI 2.0-73.6)); and for the 104 men: alexithymia (AOR 5.2 (CI 1.1-24.9)). Conclusions: Clear sex differences were demonstrated with a distinct higher prevalence of abdominal obesity, as well as a distinct higher prevalence of high midnight salivary cortisol in the women with type 1 diabetes. High midnight salivary cortisol secretion and the use of antidepressants were independent risk factors for abdominal obesity in the women.</p>},
  author       = {Melin, Eva Olga and Hillman, Magnus and Thunander, Maria and Landin-Olsson, Mona},
  issn         = {1758-5996},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {10},
  number       = {1},
  publisher    = {BioMed Central},
  series       = {Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome},
  title        = {Midnight salivary cortisol secretion and the use of antidepressants were associated with abdominal obesity in women with type 1 diabetes : A cross sectional study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13098-019-0481-3},
  doi          = {10.1186/s13098-019-0481-3},
  volume       = {11},
  year         = {2019},
}