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Prevalence of contact allergy to metals : nickel, palladium, and cobalt in Southern Sweden from 1995–2016

Rosholm Comstedt, Lisbeth LU ; Dahlin, Jakob LU ; Bruze, Magnus LU ; Åkesson, Anna ; Hindsén, Monica LU ; Pontén, Ann LU ; Isaksson, Marléne LU and Svedman, Cecilia LU (2020) In Contact Dermatitis 82(4). p.218-226
Abstract

Background: In 2001, the EU nickel directive was introduced to prevent contact allergy to nickel. Contact allergy to palladium and/or cobalt is often seen together with contact allergy to nickel. Objectives: To compare the contact allergy prevalence of nickel, palladium, and cobalt allergy before and after the introduction of the EU nickel directive in consecutive patients with dermatitis. 

Methods: A retrospective analysis of patch test results from 1995–2016 was performed (n = 18 264). Chi-square tests were used to examine trends for nickel, palladium, and cobalt across test years. Logistic regression was used for associations. 

Results: The prevalence of nickel allergy decreased significantly in the youngest age group... (More)

Background: In 2001, the EU nickel directive was introduced to prevent contact allergy to nickel. Contact allergy to palladium and/or cobalt is often seen together with contact allergy to nickel. Objectives: To compare the contact allergy prevalence of nickel, palladium, and cobalt allergy before and after the introduction of the EU nickel directive in consecutive patients with dermatitis. 

Methods: A retrospective analysis of patch test results from 1995–2016 was performed (n = 18 264). Chi-square tests were used to examine trends for nickel, palladium, and cobalt across test years. Logistic regression was used for associations. 

Results: The prevalence of nickel allergy decreased significantly in the youngest age group (6–30 years) for both female and male patients from 1995–1999 to 2012–2016: females: 33.4% to 19.1% (P <.001); males: 5.9% to 2.1% (P <.05). The concomitant reactions between nickel and palladium and nickel and cobalt among young females, respectively, also decreased significantly. Isolated palladium and cobalt allergy remained stable (1.4% and 2.3%, respectively) during the same time period for both men and women. 

Conclusions: The prevalence of nickel has decreased among young females and males suspected of contact allergy in Southern Sweden after the introduction of the EU nickel directive. There has been no change in isolated palladium or cobalt allergy.

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author
; ; ; ; ; ; and
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
cobalt, delayed hypersensitivity, metal contact allergy, nickel, nickel directive, palladium, prevention
in
Contact Dermatitis
volume
82
issue
4
pages
218 - 226
publisher
Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd
external identifiers
  • pmid:31626332
  • scopus:85082147422
ISSN
0105-1873
DOI
10.1111/cod.13422
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
bac17b40-e7ad-4cb1-b19c-34f9c01a107f
date added to LUP
2019-12-17 15:43:01
date last changed
2020-10-07 06:49:31
@article{bac17b40-e7ad-4cb1-b19c-34f9c01a107f,
  abstract     = {<p>Background: In 2001, the EU nickel directive was introduced to prevent contact allergy to nickel. Contact allergy to palladium and/or cobalt is often seen together with contact allergy to nickel. Objectives: To compare the contact allergy prevalence of nickel, palladium, and cobalt allergy before and after the introduction of the EU nickel directive in consecutive patients with dermatitis. </p><p>Methods: A retrospective analysis of patch test results from 1995–2016 was performed (n = 18 264). Chi-square tests were used to examine trends for nickel, palladium, and cobalt across test years. Logistic regression was used for associations. </p><p>Results: The prevalence of nickel allergy decreased significantly in the youngest age group (6–30 years) for both female and male patients from 1995–1999 to 2012–2016: females: 33.4% to 19.1% (P &lt;.001); males: 5.9% to 2.1% (P &lt;.05). The concomitant reactions between nickel and palladium and nickel and cobalt among young females, respectively, also decreased significantly. Isolated palladium and cobalt allergy remained stable (1.4% and 2.3%, respectively) during the same time period for both men and women. </p><p>Conclusions: The prevalence of nickel has decreased among young females and males suspected of contact allergy in Southern Sweden after the introduction of the EU nickel directive. There has been no change in isolated palladium or cobalt allergy.</p>},
  author       = {Rosholm Comstedt, Lisbeth and Dahlin, Jakob and Bruze, Magnus and Åkesson, Anna and Hindsén, Monica and Pontén, Ann and Isaksson, Marléne and Svedman, Cecilia},
  issn         = {0105-1873},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {218--226},
  publisher    = {Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd},
  series       = {Contact Dermatitis},
  title        = {Prevalence of contact allergy to metals : nickel, palladium, and cobalt in Southern Sweden from 1995–2016},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cod.13422},
  doi          = {10.1111/cod.13422},
  volume       = {82},
  year         = {2020},
}