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Prevalence of contact allergy to metals in the European general population with a focus on nickel sulfate and piercings : The EDEN Fragrance Study

Schuttelaar, Marie L.A.; Ofenloch, Robert F.; Bruze, Magnus LU ; Cazzaniga, Simone; Elsner, Peter; Gonçalo, Margarida; Naldi, Luigi; Svensson, Åke LU and Diepgen, Thomas L. (2018) In Contact Dermatitis 79(1). p.1-9
Abstract

Background: Studies on sensitization to metals in the general population are scarce. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of sensitization to metals in the general population, and factors associated with nickel sensitization. Methods: In 5 European countries (The Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Sweden), a random sample (N =3119) from the general population (aged 18-74years) was patch tested and interviewed by use of a questionnaire on exposure to metals, piercing, and jewellery. Results: Overall, the age-standardized prevalences of sensitization to nickel, cobalt and chromium were, respectively, 14.5%, 2.1%, and 0.8%. The highest prevalence of nickel sensitization was seen in Portugal (18.5%) and the lowest (8.3%) in... (More)

Background: Studies on sensitization to metals in the general population are scarce. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of sensitization to metals in the general population, and factors associated with nickel sensitization. Methods: In 5 European countries (The Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Sweden), a random sample (N =3119) from the general population (aged 18-74years) was patch tested and interviewed by use of a questionnaire on exposure to metals, piercing, and jewellery. Results: Overall, the age-standardized prevalences of sensitization to nickel, cobalt and chromium were, respectively, 14.5%, 2.1%, and 0.8%. The highest prevalence of nickel sensitization was seen in Portugal (18.5%) and the lowest (8.3%) in Sweden. The prevalence of cobalt sensitization varied between 3.8% (The Netherlands) and 0.9% (Italy), and the prevalence of chromium sensitization varied between 1.3% (Portugal) and 0.2% (Sweden). Significant associations were observed between nickel allergy and female sex (odds ratio [OR] 5.19; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 3.99-6.74), past piercing use (OR 3.86; 95%CI: 2.85-5.24), and currently having ≥3 piercings (OR 5.58; 95%CI: 4.02-7.76). Conclusions: The prevalence of sensitization to metals in the European general population was high, mostly because of nickel. The lowest prevalence of contact allergy to nickel and chromium observed in Sweden supports the effectiveness of long-standing regulation.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Chromium, Cobalt, Contact allergy, Epidemiology, Nickel, Patch testing
in
Contact Dermatitis
volume
79
issue
1
pages
1 - 9
publisher
Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd
external identifiers
  • scopus:85045110540
ISSN
0105-1873
DOI
10.1111/cod.12983
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
bb5dccac-8173-48a2-9f83-df4acd134bc2
date added to LUP
2018-04-23 10:22:58
date last changed
2019-01-14 13:00:01
@article{bb5dccac-8173-48a2-9f83-df4acd134bc2,
  abstract     = {<p>Background: Studies on sensitization to metals in the general population are scarce. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of sensitization to metals in the general population, and factors associated with nickel sensitization. Methods: In 5 European countries (The Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Sweden), a random sample (N =3119) from the general population (aged 18-74years) was patch tested and interviewed by use of a questionnaire on exposure to metals, piercing, and jewellery. Results: Overall, the age-standardized prevalences of sensitization to nickel, cobalt and chromium were, respectively, 14.5%, 2.1%, and 0.8%. The highest prevalence of nickel sensitization was seen in Portugal (18.5%) and the lowest (8.3%) in Sweden. The prevalence of cobalt sensitization varied between 3.8% (The Netherlands) and 0.9% (Italy), and the prevalence of chromium sensitization varied between 1.3% (Portugal) and 0.2% (Sweden). Significant associations were observed between nickel allergy and female sex (odds ratio [OR] 5.19; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 3.99-6.74), past piercing use (OR 3.86; 95%CI: 2.85-5.24), and currently having ≥3 piercings (OR 5.58; 95%CI: 4.02-7.76). Conclusions: The prevalence of sensitization to metals in the European general population was high, mostly because of nickel. The lowest prevalence of contact allergy to nickel and chromium observed in Sweden supports the effectiveness of long-standing regulation.</p>},
  author       = {Schuttelaar, Marie L.A. and Ofenloch, Robert F. and Bruze, Magnus and Cazzaniga, Simone and Elsner, Peter and Gonçalo, Margarida and Naldi, Luigi and Svensson, Åke and Diepgen, Thomas L.},
  issn         = {0105-1873},
  keyword      = {Chromium,Cobalt,Contact allergy,Epidemiology,Nickel,Patch testing},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {04},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {1--9},
  publisher    = {Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd},
  series       = {Contact Dermatitis},
  title        = {Prevalence of contact allergy to metals in the European general population with a focus on nickel sulfate and piercings : The EDEN Fragrance Study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cod.12983},
  volume       = {79},
  year         = {2018},
}