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Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-years for 32 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2015 : A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study

, ; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Allen, Christine; Barber, Ryan M; Barregard, Lars; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Brenner, Hermann; Dicker, Daniel J; Chimed-Orchir, Odgerel and Dandona, Rakhi, et al. (2017) In JAMA oncology 3(4). p.524-548
Abstract

Importance: Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Current estimates on the burden of cancer are needed for cancer control planning.

Objective: To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 32 cancers in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015.

Evidence Review: Cancer mortality was estimated using vital registration system data, cancer registry incidence data (transformed to mortality estimates using separately estimated mortality to incidence [MI] ratios), and verbal autopsy data. Cancer incidence was calculated by dividing mortality estimates through the modeled MI ratios. To calculate cancer... (More)

Importance: Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Current estimates on the burden of cancer are needed for cancer control planning.

Objective: To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 32 cancers in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015.

Evidence Review: Cancer mortality was estimated using vital registration system data, cancer registry incidence data (transformed to mortality estimates using separately estimated mortality to incidence [MI] ratios), and verbal autopsy data. Cancer incidence was calculated by dividing mortality estimates through the modeled MI ratios. To calculate cancer prevalence, MI ratios were used to model survival. To calculate YLDs, prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights. The YLLs were estimated by multiplying age-specific cancer deaths by the reference life expectancy. DALYs were estimated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. A sociodemographic index (SDI) was created for each location based on income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Countries were categorized by SDI quintiles to summarize results.

Findings: In 2015, there were 17.5 million cancer cases worldwide and 8.7 million deaths. Between 2005 and 2015, cancer cases increased by 33%, with population aging contributing 16%, population growth 13%, and changes in age-specific rates contributing 4%. For men, the most common cancer globally was prostate cancer (1.6 million cases). Tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer was the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs in men (1.2 million deaths and 25.9 million DALYs). For women, the most common cancer was breast cancer (2.4 million cases). Breast cancer was also the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs for women (523 000 deaths and 15.1 million DALYs). Overall, cancer caused 208.3 million DALYs worldwide in 2015 for both sexes combined. Between 2005 and 2015, age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers combined increased in 174 of 195 countries or territories. Age-standardized death rates (ASDRs) for all cancers combined decreased within that timeframe in 140 of 195 countries or territories. Countries with an increase in the ASDR due to all cancers were largely located on the African continent. Of all cancers, deaths between 2005 and 2015 decreased significantly for Hodgkin lymphoma (-6.1% [95% uncertainty interval (UI), -10.6% to -1.3%]). The number of deaths also decreased for esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, and chronic myeloid leukemia, although these results were not statistically significant.

Conclusion and Relevance: As part of the epidemiological transition, cancer incidence is expected to increase in the future, further straining limited health care resources. Appropriate allocation of resources for cancer prevention, early diagnosis, and curative and palliative care requires detailed knowledge of the local burden of cancer. The GBD 2015 study results demonstrate that progress is possible in the war against cancer. However, the major findings also highlight an unmet need for cancer prevention efforts, including tobacco control, vaccination, and the promotion of physical activity and a healthy diet.

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keywords
Age Distribution, Female, Global Burden of Disease/trends, Humans, Incidence, Male, Neoplasms/epidemiology, Sex Distribution, Time Factors
in
JAMA oncology
volume
3
issue
4
pages
25 pages
publisher
American Medical Association
external identifiers
  • scopus:85018321414
ISSN
2374-2437
DOI
10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.5688
language
English
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c0335ad5-a948-43a4-af16-97a22b2c4cce
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2018-09-01 22:40:54
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2018-09-23 04:59:00
@article{c0335ad5-a948-43a4-af16-97a22b2c4cce,
  abstract     = {<p>Importance: Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Current estimates on the burden of cancer are needed for cancer control planning.</p><p>Objective: To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 32 cancers in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015.</p><p>Evidence Review: Cancer mortality was estimated using vital registration system data, cancer registry incidence data (transformed to mortality estimates using separately estimated mortality to incidence [MI] ratios), and verbal autopsy data. Cancer incidence was calculated by dividing mortality estimates through the modeled MI ratios. To calculate cancer prevalence, MI ratios were used to model survival. To calculate YLDs, prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights. The YLLs were estimated by multiplying age-specific cancer deaths by the reference life expectancy. DALYs were estimated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. A sociodemographic index (SDI) was created for each location based on income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Countries were categorized by SDI quintiles to summarize results.</p><p>Findings: In 2015, there were 17.5 million cancer cases worldwide and 8.7 million deaths. Between 2005 and 2015, cancer cases increased by 33%, with population aging contributing 16%, population growth 13%, and changes in age-specific rates contributing 4%. For men, the most common cancer globally was prostate cancer (1.6 million cases). Tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer was the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs in men (1.2 million deaths and 25.9 million DALYs). For women, the most common cancer was breast cancer (2.4 million cases). Breast cancer was also the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs for women (523 000 deaths and 15.1 million DALYs). Overall, cancer caused 208.3 million DALYs worldwide in 2015 for both sexes combined. Between 2005 and 2015, age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers combined increased in 174 of 195 countries or territories. Age-standardized death rates (ASDRs) for all cancers combined decreased within that timeframe in 140 of 195 countries or territories. Countries with an increase in the ASDR due to all cancers were largely located on the African continent. Of all cancers, deaths between 2005 and 2015 decreased significantly for Hodgkin lymphoma (-6.1% [95% uncertainty interval (UI), -10.6% to -1.3%]). The number of deaths also decreased for esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, and chronic myeloid leukemia, although these results were not statistically significant.</p><p>Conclusion and Relevance: As part of the epidemiological transition, cancer incidence is expected to increase in the future, further straining limited health care resources. Appropriate allocation of resources for cancer prevention, early diagnosis, and curative and palliative care requires detailed knowledge of the local burden of cancer. The GBD 2015 study results demonstrate that progress is possible in the war against cancer. However, the major findings also highlight an unmet need for cancer prevention efforts, including tobacco control, vaccination, and the promotion of physical activity and a healthy diet.</p>},
  author       = {,  and Fitzmaurice, Christina and Allen, Christine and Barber, Ryan M and Barregard, Lars and Bhutta, Zulfiqar A and Brenner, Hermann and Dicker, Daniel J and Chimed-Orchir, Odgerel and Dandona, Rakhi and Dandona, Lalit and Fleming, Tom and Forouzanfar, Mohammad H and Hancock, Jamie and Hay, Roderick J and Hunter-Merrill, Rachel and Huynh, Chantal and Hosgood, H Dean and Johnson, Catherine O and Jonas, Jost B and Khubchandani, Jagdish and Kumar, G Anil and Kutz, Michael and Lan, Qing and Larson, Heidi J and Liang, Xiaofeng and Lim, Stephen S and Lopez, Alan D and MacIntyre, Michael F and Marczak, Laurie and Marquez, Neal and Mokdad, Ali H and Pinho, Christine and Pourmalek, Farshad and Salomon, Joshua A and Sanabria, Juan Ramon and Sandar, Logan and Sartorius, Benn and Schwartz, Stephen M and Shackelford, Katya A and Shibuya, Kenji and Stanaway, Jeff and Steiner, Caitlyn and Sun, Jiandong and Takahashi, Ken and Vollset, Stein Emil and Vos, Theo and Wagner, Joseph A and Wang, Haidong and Westerman, Ronny and Zeeb, Hajo},
  issn         = {2374-2437},
  keyword      = {Age Distribution,Female,Global Burden of Disease/trends,Humans,Incidence,Male,Neoplasms/epidemiology,Sex Distribution,Time Factors},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {04},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {524--548},
  publisher    = {American Medical Association},
  series       = {JAMA oncology},
  title        = {Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-years for 32 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2015 : A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.5688},
  volume       = {3},
  year         = {2017},
}