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Oral Colonization by Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax : A PCR-Based Study in Health, Gingivitis, and Periodontitis

Yaseen, Alaa ; Mahafzah, Azmi ; Dababseh, Deema ; Taim, Duaa ; Hamdan, Ahmad A. ; Al-Fraihat, Esraa ; Hassona, Yazan ; Şahin, Gülşen Özkaya LU ; Santi-Rocca, Julien and Sallam, Malik LU (2021) In Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology 11.
Abstract

Background: The etiology of periodontitis remains unclear, as is the place of gingivitis in its pathophysiology. A few studies linked the colonization by oral parasites (Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax) to periodontal disease and its severity. The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of these oral parasites among healthy individuals, and in patients with gingivitis and periodontitis in Jordan. Methods: The study was conducted during July 2019–December 2019. Samples were composed of saliva and periodontal material including dental plaque sampled with probes. The detection of oral parasites was done using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The total number of study participants was 237:... (More)

Background: The etiology of periodontitis remains unclear, as is the place of gingivitis in its pathophysiology. A few studies linked the colonization by oral parasites (Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax) to periodontal disease and its severity. The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of these oral parasites among healthy individuals, and in patients with gingivitis and periodontitis in Jordan. Methods: The study was conducted during July 2019–December 2019. Samples were composed of saliva and periodontal material including dental plaque sampled with probes. The detection of oral parasites was done using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The total number of study participants was 237: healthy (n=94), gingivitis (n=53) and periodontitis (n=90). The prevalence of E. gingivalis was 88.9% among the periodontitis patients, 84.9% among the gingivitis patients and 47.9% in the healthy group. For T. tenax, the prevalence was 25.6% among the periodontitis patients, 5.7% among the gingivitis patients and 3.2% in the heathy group. Positivity for E. gingivalis was significantly correlated with the presence of periodontal disease compared to the healthy group with odds ratio (OR) of 6.6. Periodontal disease was also correlated with lower monthly income (OR=8.2), lack of dental care (OR=4.8), and history of diabetes mellitus (OR=4.5). Colonization by E. gingivalis was correlated with gingivitis (OR=6.1) compared to the healthy group. Colonization by E. gingivalis and T. tenax were significantly correlated with periodontitis (OR=6.4 for E. gingivalis, and OR=4.7, for T. tenax) compared to the healthy group. T. tenax was only detected among individuals with generalized periodontal disease compared to its total absence among those with localized disease (19.6% vs. 0.0%; p=0.039). The co-infection rate by the two oral parasites was 11.0%. Conclusions: The higher prevalence of human oral parasites in periodontal disease compared to healthy individuals appears to be more than a mere marker for the disease and might also be associated with disease severity and potential for progression. Thus, the dogmatic view of E. gingivalis and T. tenax as commensals needs to be re-evaluated and their contribution to pathophysiology of periodontal diseases cannot be neglected.

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Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Entamoeba gingivalis, oral amoebiasis, oral microbiota, oral trichomoniasis, periodontopathogens, protozoa, Trichomonas tenax
in
Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology
volume
11
article number
782805
publisher
Frontiers Media S. A.
external identifiers
  • scopus:85121653481
  • pmid:34950608
ISSN
2235-2988
DOI
10.3389/fcimb.2021.782805
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
c07c2241-fefa-496a-942b-9e30ac37fea2
date added to LUP
2022-02-04 11:36:05
date last changed
2022-09-25 03:08:58
@article{c07c2241-fefa-496a-942b-9e30ac37fea2,
  abstract     = {{<p>Background: The etiology of periodontitis remains unclear, as is the place of gingivitis in its pathophysiology. A few studies linked the colonization by oral parasites (Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax) to periodontal disease and its severity. The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of these oral parasites among healthy individuals, and in patients with gingivitis and periodontitis in Jordan. Methods: The study was conducted during July 2019–December 2019. Samples were composed of saliva and periodontal material including dental plaque sampled with probes. The detection of oral parasites was done using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The total number of study participants was 237: healthy (n=94), gingivitis (n=53) and periodontitis (n=90). The prevalence of E. gingivalis was 88.9% among the periodontitis patients, 84.9% among the gingivitis patients and 47.9% in the healthy group. For T. tenax, the prevalence was 25.6% among the periodontitis patients, 5.7% among the gingivitis patients and 3.2% in the heathy group. Positivity for E. gingivalis was significantly correlated with the presence of periodontal disease compared to the healthy group with odds ratio (OR) of 6.6. Periodontal disease was also correlated with lower monthly income (OR=8.2), lack of dental care (OR=4.8), and history of diabetes mellitus (OR=4.5). Colonization by E. gingivalis was correlated with gingivitis (OR=6.1) compared to the healthy group. Colonization by E. gingivalis and T. tenax were significantly correlated with periodontitis (OR=6.4 for E. gingivalis, and OR=4.7, for T. tenax) compared to the healthy group. T. tenax was only detected among individuals with generalized periodontal disease compared to its total absence among those with localized disease (19.6% vs. 0.0%; p=0.039). The co-infection rate by the two oral parasites was 11.0%. Conclusions: The higher prevalence of human oral parasites in periodontal disease compared to healthy individuals appears to be more than a mere marker for the disease and might also be associated with disease severity and potential for progression. Thus, the dogmatic view of E. gingivalis and T. tenax as commensals needs to be re-evaluated and their contribution to pathophysiology of periodontal diseases cannot be neglected.</p>}},
  author       = {{Yaseen, Alaa and Mahafzah, Azmi and Dababseh, Deema and Taim, Duaa and Hamdan, Ahmad A. and Al-Fraihat, Esraa and Hassona, Yazan and Şahin, Gülşen Özkaya and Santi-Rocca, Julien and Sallam, Malik}},
  issn         = {{2235-2988}},
  keywords     = {{Entamoeba gingivalis; oral amoebiasis; oral microbiota; oral trichomoniasis; periodontopathogens; protozoa; Trichomonas tenax}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  month        = {{12}},
  publisher    = {{Frontiers Media S. A.}},
  series       = {{Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology}},
  title        = {{Oral Colonization by Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax : A PCR-Based Study in Health, Gingivitis, and Periodontitis}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.782805}},
  doi          = {{10.3389/fcimb.2021.782805}},
  volume       = {{11}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}