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Vid pornografins gräns : Erotik i svensk prosa 1819–2019

Hultman, Anna LU (2022) In Vertigo akademika 800(003).
Abstract
Transgressive sexual representations have long been a point of contention in Western societies. While some representations are easily disregarded as obscene, pornographic, smut, worthless or uninteresting, others disrupt established categorizations and are subject to heated debates. To map and understand the history of written, sexual representations in a Swedish context, I use the literature/porn dichotomy as an analytic model, with the border as a key metaphor, and, the concept ‘erotic literature’ to denote representations that are situated at the borderline between literature and pornography. Through chronologically structured historical chapters and in-depth case studies, I analyze the emergence and transformation(s) of the borderland... (More)
Transgressive sexual representations have long been a point of contention in Western societies. While some representations are easily disregarded as obscene, pornographic, smut, worthless or uninteresting, others disrupt established categorizations and are subject to heated debates. To map and understand the history of written, sexual representations in a Swedish context, I use the literature/porn dichotomy as an analytic model, with the border as a key metaphor, and, the concept ‘erotic literature’ to denote representations that are situated at the borderline between literature and pornography. Through chronologically structured historical chapters and in-depth case studies, I analyze the emergence and transformation(s) of the borderland between literature and pornography in Sweden 1819–2019; how the border takes shape in, and shapes, Swedish prose. Through the exploration of the border, I also outline a preliminary version of the history of erotic literature in Sweden. In the introductory chapter I argue that sexual representations navigate the border between literature and pornography through provocation and legitimization, and propose dual perspectives on pornography: as historically constructed, and, as a specific mode of narration. This provides me with a productive theoretical outset. I introduce historical contextualization as a method and the pornographic narrative – constituted by a pornographic logic and a pornographic code – as an analytical model, and present a framework for analysing legitimizing strategies.
The first part of the study maps the pre-history of pornography in Sweden and argues that Carl Jonas Love Almqvist’s Murnis (1819) can be read both in relation to this pre-history and as indicative of the fact that a border between pornography and literature was emerging in Sweden. The second part of the study explores the growing fear of indecency during the 19th century and analyses how Anne Charlotte Leffler’s novel Kvinnlighet och erotik II (1890) navigated the border in this highly regulated literary climate. The third part of the study discusses the gradual liberalization that took place after the turn of the century and how the so-called ‘Pahlen novels’ (1930–1935) by author Agnes von Krusenstjerna utilized the emerging division between the artistic and the commercial realms to reach a newfound degree of provocation and sexual explicitness. The fourth part of the study charts the drastic liberalization in the post-war period that culminated in the decriminalization of pornography in 1971, and shows how Carl-Henning Wijkmark’s Jägarna på Karinhall (1972), in a breaking point between liberalization and re-regulation, used pornographic narration as a literary device to portray the excessive dynamics of fascism.
The fifth part of the study examines how erotic literature diversified after the decriminalisation and how written sexual representations became almost completely excluded from the concept of pornography. Through case studies of the short story anthologies Sex mäns lusta (1992) and Sex kvinnors lusta (1992), Kristofer Folkhammar’s Magisterlekarna (2015) and Helena Österlund’s Min sårbara kropp (2019), I show how erotic literature was constituted as a book market category, how pornographic narration became a device used in mainstream literature which destabilized the boundaries between different genres, and how identity became an important legitimizing strategy. In the concluding remarks I discuss the dialectical process between repression and liberation 1819–2019, how erotic literature can be regarded both as tradition(s) and as a mode of writing, and the larger implications of the study.
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Abstract (Swedish)
Omstridda sexuella representationer har länge varit en konfliktyta i en västerländsk kontext. Vissa av dessa representationer har snabbt avfärdats som obscena, pornografiska, smutsiga, värdelösa eller ointressanta, medan andra har utmanat etablerade kategoriseringar och blivit föremål för intensiv debatt. För att undersöka och förstå de skriftliga sexuella representationernas historia i en svensk kontext, använder jag dikotomin litteratur/pornografi som ett analytiskt ramverk, med gränsen som en nyckelmetafor, och begreppet erotisk litteratur för att beteckna de representationer som befunnit sig i gränslandet mellan litteratur och pornografi. I kronologiskt strukturerade historiska översikter och ingående analyskapitel, analyserar jag hur... (More)
Omstridda sexuella representationer har länge varit en konfliktyta i en västerländsk kontext. Vissa av dessa representationer har snabbt avfärdats som obscena, pornografiska, smutsiga, värdelösa eller ointressanta, medan andra har utmanat etablerade kategoriseringar och blivit föremål för intensiv debatt. För att undersöka och förstå de skriftliga sexuella representationernas historia i en svensk kontext, använder jag dikotomin litteratur/pornografi som ett analytiskt ramverk, med gränsen som en nyckelmetafor, och begreppet erotisk litteratur för att beteckna de representationer som befunnit sig i gränslandet mellan litteratur och pornografi. I kronologiskt strukturerade historiska översikter och ingående analyskapitel, analyserar jag hur gränslandet mellan litteratur och pornografi växt fram och transformerats i Sverige 1819–2019, och hur gränsen både framträder i och formar svensk prosa. Genom undersökningen av gränsen skisserar jag också en första version av den erotiska litteraturens historia i Sverige. I avhandlingens inledning argumenterar jag för att sexuella representationer navigerar kring gränsen mellan litteratur och pornografi genom provocering och legitimering, och presenterar ett dubbelt perspektiv på pornografi: dels som en historiskt konstruerad kategori, dels som en specifik typ av berättande. Med detta som en produktiv, teoretisk utgångspunkt redogör jag för historisk kontextualisering som metod och för den pornografiska berättelsen ¬– konstituerad av en pornografisk logik och en pornografisk kod – som en analysmodell. Jag introducerar också ett ramverk för att analysera legitimerande strategier.
Avhandlingens första del kartlägger pornografins förhistoria i Sverige och argumenterar för att Carl Jonas Love Almqvists Murnis (1819) kan läsas både i relation till denna förhistoria och som indikativ för hur en gräns mellan litteratur och pornografi var på väg att börja etableras i en svensk kontext. Avhandlingens andra del undersöker den växande oron för osedlighet under 1800-talet och hur Anne Charlotte Lefflers roman Kvinnlighet och erotik II (1890) navigerade kring gränsen i ett starkt repressivt litterärt klimat. Avhandlingens tredje del behandlar den gradvisa liberalisering som skedde efter sekelskiftet 1900 och analyserar hur Agnes von Krusenstjernas romansvit ”Fröknarna von Pahlen”, tack vare den framväxande uppdelningen mellan kommersiella och konstnärliga sexuella representationer, kunde nå en helt ny grad av provokation och gestaltning av explicit sex. Avhandlingens fjärde del tecknar den drastiska liberaliseringsprocessen under efterkrigstiden som kulminerade i pornografins avkriminalisering 1971, och visar hur Carl-Henning Wijkmarks Jägarna på Karinhall (1972), i en brytpunkt mellan liberalisering och återreglering, använde pornografiskt berättande som ett litterärt grepp för att gestalta fascismens excessiva dynamik.
Avhandlingens femte del undersöker hur erotisk litteratur diversifierades efter pornografins avkriminalisering och hur skriftliga sexuella representationer närmast kom att helt exkluderas ur begreppet pornografi. Genom fallstudier av novellantologierna Sex mäns lusta (1992) och Sex kvinnors lusta (1992), Kristofer Folkhammars Magisterlekarna (2015) och Helena Österlunds Min sårbara kropp (2019) visar jag hur erotisk litteratur etablerades som en marknadsföringskategori, hur pornografiskt berättande blev ett litterärt grepp i den bredare litteraturen vilket destabiliserade genregränser, och hur identitet växte fram som en central legitimerande faktor. I de avslutande reflektionerna diskuterar jag växlingarna mellan liberalisering och repression 1819–¬2019 som en dialektisk process, hur erotisk litteratur kan betraktas både som litterär(a) tradition(er) och som ett slags modus, och studiens vidare implikationer.
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Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • docent Annika Olsson, Malmö universitet
organization
alternative title
At the border of pornography : Eroticism in Swedish prose 1819–2019
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
svensk 1800-talslitteratur, svensk 1900-talslitteratur, Almqvist, erotisk litteratur, Folkhammar, sexualitetens historia, Krusenstjerna, Leffler, legitimering, litteraturhistoria, pornografi, prosa, provokation, sexuella representationer, Sverige, överträdelse, Wijkmark, Österlund, 19th Century Swedish Literature, 20th Century Swedish Literature, Almqvist, Erotic Literature, Folkhammar, History of Sexuality, Krusenstjerna, Leffler, Legitimization, Literary History, Pornography, Prose, Provocation, Sexual Representations, Sweden, Transgression, Wijkmark, Österlund
in
Vertigo akademika
volume
800
issue
003
edition
1
pages
608 pages
publisher
Vertigo förlag
defense location
H104, SOL, Finngatan 1, Lund
defense date
2022-12-02 10:15:00
ISBN
978-91-986472-2-8
language
Swedish
LU publication?
yes
id
c34d5f0d-c64e-498a-84e6-4fbe0660f45d
date added to LUP
2022-10-31 11:45:30
date last changed
2022-11-04 11:33:17
@phdthesis{c34d5f0d-c64e-498a-84e6-4fbe0660f45d,
  abstract     = {{Transgressive sexual representations have long been a point of contention in Western societies. While some representations are easily disregarded as obscene, pornographic, smut, worthless or uninteresting, others disrupt established categorizations and are subject to heated debates. To map and understand the history of written, sexual representations in a Swedish context, I use the literature/porn dichotomy as an analytic model, with the border as a key metaphor, and, the concept ‘erotic literature’ to denote representations that are situated at the borderline between literature and pornography. Through chronologically structured historical chapters and in-depth case studies, I analyze the emergence and transformation(s) of the borderland between literature and pornography in Sweden 1819–2019; how the border takes shape in, and shapes, Swedish prose. Through the exploration of the border, I also outline a preliminary version of the history of erotic literature in Sweden. In the introductory chapter I argue that sexual representations navigate the border between literature and pornography through provocation and legitimization, and propose dual perspectives on pornography: as historically constructed, and, as a specific mode of narration. This provides me with a productive theoretical outset. I introduce historical contextualization as a method and the pornographic narrative – constituted by a pornographic logic and a pornographic code – as an analytical model, and present a framework for analysing legitimizing strategies.  <br/>The first part of the study maps the pre-history of pornography in Sweden and argues that Carl Jonas Love Almqvist’s Murnis (1819) can be read both in relation to this pre-history and as indicative of the fact that a border between pornography and literature was emerging in Sweden. The second part of the study explores the growing fear of indecency during the 19th century and analyses how Anne Charlotte Leffler’s novel Kvinnlighet och erotik II (1890) navigated the border in this highly regulated literary climate. The third part of the study discusses the gradual liberalization that took place after the turn of the century and how the so-called ‘Pahlen novels’ (1930–1935) by author Agnes von Krusenstjerna utilized the emerging division between the artistic and the commercial realms to reach a newfound degree of provocation and sexual explicitness. The fourth part of the study charts the drastic liberalization in the post-war period that culminated in the decriminalization of pornography in 1971, and shows how Carl-Henning Wijkmark’s Jägarna på Karinhall (1972), in a breaking point between liberalization and re-regulation, used pornographic narration as a literary device to portray the excessive dynamics of fascism. <br/>The fifth part of the study examines how erotic literature diversified after the decriminalisation and how written sexual representations became almost completely excluded from the concept of pornography. Through case studies of the short story anthologies Sex mäns lusta (1992) and Sex kvinnors lusta (1992), Kristofer Folkhammar’s Magisterlekarna (2015) and Helena Österlund’s Min sårbara kropp (2019), I show how erotic literature was constituted as a book market category, how pornographic narration became a device used in mainstream literature which destabilized the boundaries between different genres, and how identity became an important legitimizing strategy. In the concluding remarks I discuss the dialectical process between repression and liberation 1819–2019, how erotic literature can be regarded both as tradition(s) and as a mode of writing, and the larger implications of the study. <br/>}},
  author       = {{Hultman, Anna}},
  isbn         = {{978-91-986472-2-8}},
  keywords     = {{svensk 1800-talslitteratur; svensk 1900-talslitteratur; Almqvist; erotisk litteratur; Folkhammar; sexualitetens historia; Krusenstjerna; Leffler; legitimering; litteraturhistoria; pornografi; prosa; provokation; sexuella representationer; Sverige; överträdelse; Wijkmark; Österlund; 19th Century Swedish Literature; 20th Century Swedish Literature; Almqvist; Erotic Literature; Folkhammar; History of Sexuality; Krusenstjerna; Leffler; Legitimization; Literary History; Pornography; Prose; Provocation; Sexual Representations; Sweden; Transgression; Wijkmark; Österlund}},
  language     = {{swe}},
  month        = {{12}},
  number       = {{003}},
  publisher    = {{Vertigo förlag}},
  school       = {{Lund University}},
  series       = {{Vertigo akademika}},
  title        = {{Vid pornografins gräns : Erotik i svensk prosa 1819–2019}},
  volume       = {{800}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}