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Severity of anxiety– but not depression– is associated with oxidative stress in Major Depressive Disorder

Steenkamp, Lisa R.; Hough, Christina M; Reus, Victor I; Jain, Felipe A; Epel, Elissa S; James, S Jill; Morford, Alexandra E.; Mellon, Synthia H; Wolkowitz, Owen M and Lindqvist, Daniel LU (2017) In Journal of Affective Disorders 219. p.193-200
Abstract

Background Oxidative stress is implicated in both depression and anxiety, but it is currently unclear whether this relates to syndromal diagnoses or trans-diagnostic dimensional symptoms. We examined the relationship between oxidative stress and severity of depression and anxiety symptoms in individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Methods Plasma oxidative stress markers F2-isoprostanes and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and the antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH), were assessed in 69 physically healthy, medication-free MDD subjects. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hamilton Anxiety (HAM-A) and Hamilton Depression (HAM-D) Rating Scales. Total HAM-A and HAM-D scores, along with “core” anxiety and... (More)

Background Oxidative stress is implicated in both depression and anxiety, but it is currently unclear whether this relates to syndromal diagnoses or trans-diagnostic dimensional symptoms. We examined the relationship between oxidative stress and severity of depression and anxiety symptoms in individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Methods Plasma oxidative stress markers F2-isoprostanes and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and the antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH), were assessed in 69 physically healthy, medication-free MDD subjects. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hamilton Anxiety (HAM-A) and Hamilton Depression (HAM-D) Rating Scales. Total HAM-A and HAM-D scores, along with “core” anxiety and depression subscales, and individual HAM-D items “psychic anxiety” and “depressed mood,” were related to oxidative stress markers. Analyses controlled for age, sex, BMI, and smoking. Results Total HAM-A ratings were positively associated with F2-isoprostanes (β=.26, p=.042) and GSSG (β=.25, p=.049), but not GSH (β=.05, p=.711). Core anxiety severity was positively associated with F2-isoprostanes (β=.34, p=.012) and GSSG, although this did not reach significance (β=.24, p=.074). None of the biological markers were significantly associated with total HAM-D or core depression ratings (all p>.13). Subjects scoring high on “psychic anxiety” had elevated F2-isoprostanes (p=.030) and GSSG (p=.020). This was not seen with “depressed mood” scores (all p>.12). Limitations We assessed peripheral oxidative markers, but their relationship to the brain is unclear. Conclusions Oxidative stress is more closely related to anxiety than depression symptoms in MDD. This highlights the importance of relating oxidative stress to specific symptoms and could provide new insights into the biological correlates of affective disorders.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Anxiety, F2-isoprostanes, Major Depressive Disorder, Oxidative stress, Oxidized glutathione, Reduced glutathione
in
Journal of Affective Disorders
volume
219
pages
193 - 200
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • scopus:85019741404
  • wos:000406463600027
ISSN
0165-0327
DOI
10.1016/j.jad.2017.04.042
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
c476e12a-8112-443f-8eab-91bfb120e010
date added to LUP
2017-06-16 11:05:24
date last changed
2018-01-07 12:08:10
@article{c476e12a-8112-443f-8eab-91bfb120e010,
  abstract     = {<p>Background Oxidative stress is implicated in both depression and anxiety, but it is currently unclear whether this relates to syndromal diagnoses or trans-diagnostic dimensional symptoms. We examined the relationship between oxidative stress and severity of depression and anxiety symptoms in individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Methods Plasma oxidative stress markers F2-isoprostanes and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and the antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH), were assessed in 69 physically healthy, medication-free MDD subjects. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hamilton Anxiety (HAM-A) and Hamilton Depression (HAM-D) Rating Scales. Total HAM-A and HAM-D scores, along with “core” anxiety and depression subscales, and individual HAM-D items “psychic anxiety” and “depressed mood,” were related to oxidative stress markers. Analyses controlled for age, sex, BMI, and smoking. Results Total HAM-A ratings were positively associated with F2-isoprostanes (β=.26, p=.042) and GSSG (β=.25, p=.049), but not GSH (β=.05, p=.711). Core anxiety severity was positively associated with F2-isoprostanes (β=.34, p=.012) and GSSG, although this did not reach significance (β=.24, p=.074). None of the biological markers were significantly associated with total HAM-D or core depression ratings (all p&gt;.13). Subjects scoring high on “psychic anxiety” had elevated F2-isoprostanes (p=.030) and GSSG (p=.020). This was not seen with “depressed mood” scores (all p&gt;.12). Limitations We assessed peripheral oxidative markers, but their relationship to the brain is unclear. Conclusions Oxidative stress is more closely related to anxiety than depression symptoms in MDD. This highlights the importance of relating oxidative stress to specific symptoms and could provide new insights into the biological correlates of affective disorders.</p>},
  author       = {Steenkamp, Lisa R. and Hough, Christina M and Reus, Victor I and Jain, Felipe A and Epel, Elissa S and James, S Jill and Morford, Alexandra E. and Mellon, Synthia H and Wolkowitz, Owen M and Lindqvist, Daniel},
  issn         = {0165-0327},
  keyword      = {Anxiety,F2-isoprostanes,Major Depressive Disorder,Oxidative stress,Oxidized glutathione,Reduced glutathione},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {09},
  pages        = {193--200},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Journal of Affective Disorders},
  title        = {Severity of anxiety– but not depression– is associated with oxidative stress in Major Depressive Disorder},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.04.042},
  volume       = {219},
  year         = {2017},
}